• Publications
  • Influence
The Consensus—Expectations Gap: Explaining Europe's Ineffective Foreign Policy
  • A. Toje
  • Political Science
  • 1 March 2008
By 2008, what is commonly known as the EU's `capability—expectations gap' has narrowed considerably. While the EU has made notable improvements in terms of its resource availability, as well as the
The European Union as a Small Power
  • A. Toje
  • Political Science
  • 15 December 2010
With the creation of a common foreign and security policy (CFSP), the EU has entered the realm of power politics. Although the ambition to become a great power has been frequently reiterated, the EU
The European Union as a Small Power, or Conceptualizing Europe’s Strategic Actorness
  • A. Toje
  • Political Science, Business
  • 30 April 2008
Abstract The article disputes the notion that the European Union is unfit to develop a strategic actorness for cultural or structural reasons or that it must change in order to facilitate the
The EU Security Strategy Revised: Europe Hedging Its Bets
  • A. Toje
  • Political Science
    European Foreign Affairs Review
  • 1 May 2010
Abstract. The 2008 Report on the Implementation of the European Security Strategy was written to update the 2003 European Security Strategy (ESS), the EU’s overall foreign policy strategy. This
The European Union as a Small Power: After the Post-Cold War
Foreword Introduction and basic arguments The Anatomy of EU Security The European Union as a Historical Phenomenon European Defence: the State of the Union The European Security Strategy Revisited
Neoclassical realism in European politics : bringing power back in
1. Introduction: neoclassical realism in Europe Asle Toje, Barbara Kunz and Michael Agner 2. Realism - a distinctively European academic tradition Torbjorn L. Knutsen 3. The tradition of neoclassical
Explaining Foreign Policy: International Diplomacy and the Russo-Georgian War by Hans Mouritzen and Anders Wivel
Why would Georgia attack South Ossetia in August 2008, with Russian forces conducting exercises nearby? This remains a puzzle to analysts-on a not inconsiderable list of foreign policy puzzles. Hans
The 2003 European Union Security Strategy: A Critical Appraisal
  • A. Toje
  • Political Science
    European Foreign Affairs Review
  • 1 February 2005
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