• Publications
  • Influence
Cue dependency of nicotine self-administration and smoking
A paradox exists regarding the reinforcing properties of nicotine. The abuse liability associated with smoking equals or exceeds that of other addictive drugs, yet the euphoric, reinforcing and otherExpand
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Operant responding for a visual reinforcer in rats is enhanced by noncontingent nicotine: implications for nicotine self-administration and reinforcement
RationaleCurrent conceptualizations of drug reinforcement assume that drug-taking behavior is a consequence of the contingent, temporal relationship between the behavior and drug reward. However,Expand
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Tonic vasomotor control by the rostral ventrolateral medulla: effect of electrical or chemical stimulation of the area containing C1 adrenaline neurons on arterial pressure, heart rate, and plasma
We have studied the responses to electrical and chemical stimulation of the ventrolateral medulla in the chloralose-anesthetized, paralyzed, artificially ventilated rat. Locations of most activeExpand
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Anatomical substrates for the central control of sympathetic outflow to interscapular adipose tissue during cold exposure
The thermogenic activity of interscapular brown adipose tissue (IBAT) in response to physiologic stimuli, such as cold exposure, is controlled by its sympathetic innervation. To determine which brainExpand
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The role of nicotine in smoking: a dual-reinforcement model.
Models of intravenous nicotine self-administration in laboratory animals are being used to investigate the behavioral and neurobiological consequences of nicotine reinforcement, and to aid in theExpand
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Efferent projections of rat rostroventrolateral medulla C1 catecholamine neurons: Implications for the central control of cardiovascular regulation
A replication‐defective lentivirus vector that expresses enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) under the control of a synthetic dopamine‐β‐hydroxylase (DβH) promoter was used to define efferentExpand
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Ventrolateral Medulla AT1 Receptors Support Blood Pressure in Hypertensive Rats
Abstract—Angiotensin within the central nervous system appears to be important for the maintenance of hypertension in spontaneously hypertensive rats. This study addresses the hypothesis thatExpand
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Stress‐Induced Sensitization of Dopamine and Norepinephrine Efflux in Medial Prefrontal Cortex of the Rat
Abstract: We examined whether prior exposure to chronic cold (17–28 days, 5°C) alters basal or stress‐evoked (30‐min tail shock) catecholamine release in medial prefrontal cortex, nucleus accumbens,Expand
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Dissociating the primary reinforcing and reinforcement-enhancing effects of nicotine using a rat self-administration paradigm with concurrently available drug and environmental reinforcers
RationaleNicotine has two effects on reinforcement in traditional self-administration paradigms. It serves as a primary reinforcer by increasing the probability of behaviors that result in nicotineExpand
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Local Influence of Endogenous Norepinephrine on Extracellular Dopamine in Rat Medial Prefrontal Cortex
Abstract: Noradrenergic and dopaminergic projections converge in the medial prefrontal cortex and there is evidence of an interaction between dopamine (DA) and norepinephrine (NE) terminals in thisExpand
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