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Ca2+ sensitivity of smooth muscle and nonmuscle myosin II: modulated by G proteins, kinases, and myosin phosphatase.
Ca2+ sensitivity of smooth muscle and nonmuscle myosin II reflects the ratio of activities of myosin light-chain kinase (MLCK) to myosin light-chain phosphatase (MLCP) and is a major, regulatedExpand
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Signal transduction and regulation in smooth muscle
Smooth muscle cells in the walls of many organs are vital for most bodily functions, and their abnormalities contribute to a range of diseases. Although based on a sliding-filament mechanism similarExpand
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Signal transduction by G-proteins, rho-kinase and protein phosphatase to smooth muscle and non-muscle myosin II.
We here review mechanisms that can regulate the activity of myosin II, in smooth muscle and non-muscle cells, by modulating the Ca2+ sensitivity of myosin regulatory light chain (RLC)Expand
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Smooth Muscle Differentiation Marker Gene Expression Is Regulated by RhoA-mediated Actin Polymerization*
Smooth muscle cell (SMC) differentiation is regulated by a complex array of local environmental cues, but the intracellular signaling pathways and the transcription mechanisms that regulate thisExpand
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Myosin light chain phosphatase activities and the effects of phosphatase inhibitors in tonic and phasic smooth muscle.
Phosphatase inhibitors microcystin-LR, tautomycin, and okadaic acid caused contraction and increased 20-kDa myosin light chain (MLC20) phosphorylation in Ca(2+)-free solutions in both phasic andExpand
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The sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) was studied in the smooth muscles of rabbit main pulmonary artery, mesenteric vein, aorta, mesenteric artery, taenia coli, guinea pig mesenteric artery, and humanExpand
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Calcium release and ionic changes in the sarcoplasmic reticulum of tetanized muscle: an electron-probe study
Approximately 60-70% of the total fiber calcium was localized in the terminal cisternae (TC) in resting frog muscle as determined by electron-probe analysis of ultrathin cryosections. During a 1.2 sExpand
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The effects of the Rho‐kinase inhibitor Y‐27632 on arachidonic acid‐, GTPγS‐, and phorbol ester‐induced Ca2+‐sensitization of smooth muscle
The effects of the Rho‐kinase inhibitor, Y‐27632 [1] on Ca2+‐sensitization of force induced by arachidonic acid (AA), phorbol 12,13‐dibutyrate (PDBu), GTPγS, and by the stable thromboxane analog,Expand
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G protein-mediated inhibition of myosin light-chain phosphatase in vascular smooth muscle.
The mechanism of G protein-mediated sensitization of the contractile apparatus of smooth muscle to Ca2+ was studied in receptor-coupled alpha-toxin-permeabilized rabbit portal vein smooth muscle. ToExpand
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The contractile apparatus of vascular smooth muscle: intermediate high voltage stereo electron microscopy.
Intermediate high voltage stereo electron microscopy of rabbit portal-anterior mesenteric vein smooth muscle showed that thick filaments are 2·2 μm long and have tapered ends. In serial transverseExpand
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