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Ca2+ sensitivity of smooth muscle and nonmuscle myosin II: modulated by G proteins, kinases, and myosin phosphatase.
Ca2+ sensitivity of smooth muscle and nonmuscle myosin II reflects the ratio of activities of myosin light-chain kinase (MLCK) to myosin light-chain phosphatase (MLCP) and is a major, regulatedExpand
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Signal transduction and regulation in smooth muscle
Smooth muscle cells in the walls of many organs are vital for most bodily functions, and their abnormalities contribute to a range of diseases. Although based on a sliding-filament mechanism similarExpand
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Signal transduction by G-proteins, rho-kinase and protein phosphatase to smooth muscle and non-muscle myosin II.
We here review mechanisms that can regulate the activity of myosin II, in smooth muscle and non-muscle cells, by modulating the Ca2+ sensitivity of myosin regulatory light chain (RLC)Expand
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Smooth Muscle Differentiation Marker Gene Expression Is Regulated by RhoA-mediated Actin Polymerization*
Smooth muscle cell (SMC) differentiation is regulated by a complex array of local environmental cues, but the intracellular signaling pathways and the transcription mechanisms that regulate thisExpand
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Myosin light chain phosphatase activities and the effects of phosphatase inhibitors in tonic and phasic smooth muscle.
Phosphatase inhibitors microcystin-LR, tautomycin, and okadaic acid caused contraction and increased 20-kDa myosin light chain (MLC20) phosphorylation in Ca(2+)-free solutions in both phasic andExpand
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SARCOPLASMIC RETICULUM AND EXCITATION-CONTRACTION COUPLING IN MAMMALIAN SMOOTH MUSCLES
The sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) was studied in the smooth muscles of rabbit main pulmonary artery, mesenteric vein, aorta, mesenteric artery, taenia coli, guinea pig mesenteric artery, and humanExpand
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Calcium release and ionic changes in the sarcoplasmic reticulum of tetanized muscle: an electron-probe study
Approximately 60-70% of the total fiber calcium was localized in the terminal cisternae (TC) in resting frog muscle as determined by electron-probe analysis of ultrathin cryosections. During a 1.2 sExpand
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The effects of the Rho‐kinase inhibitor Y‐27632 on arachidonic acid‐, GTPγS‐, and phorbol ester‐induced Ca2+‐sensitization of smooth muscle
The effects of the Rho‐kinase inhibitor, Y‐27632 [1] on Ca2+‐sensitization of force induced by arachidonic acid (AA), phorbol 12,13‐dibutyrate (PDBu), GTPγS, and by the stable thromboxane analog,Expand
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G protein-mediated inhibition of myosin light-chain phosphatase in vascular smooth muscle.
The mechanism of G protein-mediated sensitization of the contractile apparatus of smooth muscle to Ca2+ was studied in receptor-coupled alpha-toxin-permeabilized rabbit portal vein smooth muscle. ToExpand
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The contractile apparatus of vascular smooth muscle: intermediate high voltage stereo electron microscopy.
Intermediate high voltage stereo electron microscopy of rabbit portal-anterior mesenteric vein smooth muscle showed that thick filaments are 2·2 μm long and have tapered ends. In serial transverseExpand
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