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Coordinate Regulation of Glutathione Biosynthesis and Release by Nrf2-Expressing Glia Potently Protects Neurons from Oxidative Stress
Astrocytes have a higher antioxidant potential in comparison to neurons. Pathways associated with this selective advantage include the transcriptional regulation of antioxidant enzymes via the actionExpand
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Fluctuating and sensory-induced vasodynamics in rodent cortex extend arteriole capacity
Neural activity in the brain is followed by localized changes in blood flow and volume. We address the relative change in volume for arteriole vs. venous blood within primary vibrissa cortex ofExpand
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Cystine/Glutamate Exchange Modulates Glutathione Supply for Neuroprotection from Oxidative Stress and Cell Proliferation
The cystine/glutamate exchanger (xCT) provides intracellular cyst(e)ine for production of glutathione, a major cellular antioxidant. Using xCT overexpression and underexpression, we present evidenceExpand
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Chronic optical access through a polished and reinforced thinned skull.
We present a method to form an optical window in the mouse skull that spans millimeters and is stable for months without causing brain inflammation. This enabled us to repeatedly image blood flow inExpand
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The smallest stroke: occlusion of one penetrating vessel leads to infarction and a cognitive deficit
Microinfarctions are present in the aged and injured human brain. Their clinical relevance is controversial, with postulated sequelae ranging from cognitive sparing to vascular dementia. To addressExpand
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Induction of the Nrf2-driven Antioxidant Response Confers Neuroprotection during Mitochondrial Stress in Vivo*
NF-E2 related factor (Nrf2) controls a pleiotropic cellular defense, where multiple antioxidant/detoxification pathways are up-regulated in unison. Although small molecule inducers of Nrf2 activityExpand
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A Small-Molecule-Inducible Nrf2-Mediated Antioxidant Response Provides Effective Prophylaxis against Cerebral Ischemia In Vivo
The transcription factor nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) coordinates expression of genes required for free radical scavenging, detoxification of xenobiotics, and maintenance ofExpand
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NF-E2-related Factor-2 Mediates Neuroprotection against Mitochondrial Complex I Inhibitors and Increased Concentrations of Intracellular Calcium in Primary Cortical Neurons*
NF-E2-related factor-2 (Nrf2) regulates the gene expression of phase II detoxification enzymes and antioxidant proteins through an enhancer sequence referred to as the antioxidant-responsive elementExpand
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Pericyte structure and distribution in the cerebral cortex revealed by high-resolution imaging of transgenic mice
Abstract. Pericytes are essential for normal brain function, but many aspects of their physiology remain enigmatic due to a lack of tools to genetically target this cell population. Here, weExpand
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Two-Photon Microscopy as a Tool to Study Blood Flow and Neurovascular Coupling in the Rodent Brain
The cerebral vascular system services the constant demand for energy during neuronal activity in the brain. Attempts to delineate the logic of neurovascular coupling have been greatly aided by theExpand
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