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PD-1 and its ligands in tolerance and immunity.
TLDR
Current understanding of the immunoregulatory functions of PD-1 and its ligands and their therapeutic potential are discussed and an inhibitory bidirectional interaction between PD-L1 and B7-1 is discovered, revealing new ways the B7:CD28 family regulates T cell activation and tolerance.
Restoring function in exhausted CD8 T cells during chronic viral infection
TLDR
It is found that even in persistently infected mice that were lacking CD4 T-cell help, blockade of the PD-1/PD-L1 inhibitory pathway had a beneficial effect on the ‘helpless’ CD8 T cells, restoring their ability to undergo proliferation, secrete cytokines, kill infected cells and decrease viral load.
The B7 family revisited.
TLDR
The roles of the B7:CD28 family members in regulating immune responses are revisited, and the therapeutic potential of these families is discussed.
p63 is essential for regenerative proliferation in limb, craniofacial and epithelial development
TLDR
It is reported that mice homozygous for a disrupted p63 gene have major defects in their limb, craniofacial and epithelial development, and results indicate that p63 is critical for maintaining the progenitor-cell populations that are necessary to sustain epithelialDevelopment and morphogenesis.
PD-L2 is a second ligand for PD-1 and inhibits T cell activation
TLDR
These studies show overlapping functions of PD-L1 andPD-L2 and indicate a key role for the PD- L–PD-1 pathway in regulating T cell responses.
PD-L1 regulates the development, maintenance, and function of induced regulatory T cells
TLDR
PD-L1 can inhibit T cell responses by promoting both the induction and maintenance of iT reg cells, defining a novel mechanism for iT reg cell development and function, as well as a new strategy for controlling T reg cell plasticity.
The PD‐1 pathway in tolerance and autoimmunity
TLDR
This review highlights how PD‐1 and its ligands defend against potentially pathogenic self‐reactive effector T cells by simultaneously harnessing two mechanisms of peripheral tolerance: (i) the promotion of Treg development and function and (ii) the direct inhibition of potentially pathogen self-reactive T cells that have escaped into the periphery.
The B7–CD28 superfamily
TLDR
The current understanding of the new members of the B7 and CD28 families is summarized, their therapeutic potential is discussed, and other immunoregulatory pathways remain to be described.
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