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Regulation of iron homeostasis in anemia of chronic disease and iron deficiency anemia: diagnostic and therapeutic implications.
The anemia of chronic disease (ACD) is characterized by macrophage iron retention induced by cytokines and the master regulator hepcidin. Hepcidin controls cellular iron efflux on binding to the ironExpand
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Erythropoietin Contrastingly Affects Bacterial Infection and Experimental Colitis by Inhibiting Nuclear Factor-κB-Inducible Immune Pathways
Summary Erythropoietin (EPO) is the principal cytokine regulating erythropoiesis through its receptor, EPOR. Interestingly, EPORs are also found on immune cells with incompletely understoodExpand
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Absence of functional Hfe protects mice from invasive Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium infection via induction of lipocalin-2.
Mutations of HFE are associated with hereditary hemochromatosis, but their influence on host susceptibility to infection is incompletely understood. We report that mice lacking one or both HfeExpand
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The struggle for iron – a metal at the host–pathogen interface
Iron holds a central position at the host–pathogen interface because mammalian and microbial cells have an essential demand for the metal, which is required for many metabolic processes. In addition,Expand
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Nitric oxide–mediated regulation of ferroportin-1 controls macrophage iron homeostasis and immune function in Salmonella infection
NOS2-derived nitric oxide drives ferroportin-1–mediated iron export in Salmonella-infected macrophages, thus limiting bacterial growth.
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The pleiotropic effects of erythropoietin in infection and inflammation
Erythropoietin (EPO) is a multi-functional cytokine, which exerts erythropoietic effects but also carries anti-apoptotic and immune-modulatory activities upon binding to two distinct receptors whichExpand
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Pharmacologic inhibition of hepcidin expression reverses anemia of chronic inflammation in rats.
Anemia of chronic inflammation (ACI) is the most frequent anemia in hospitalized patients and is associated with significant morbidity. A major underlying mechanism of ACI is the retention of ironExpand
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High-fat diet causes iron deficiency via hepcidin-independent reduction of duodenal iron absorption.
Obesity is often associated with disorders of iron homeostasis; however, the underlying mechanisms are not fully understood. Hepcidin is a key regulator of iron metabolism and may be responsible forExpand
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Pathways for the regulation of hepcidin expression in anemia of chronic disease and iron deficiency anemia in vivo
Background Increased levels of hepcidin, the master regulator of iron homeostasis, contribute to the diversion of iron underlying the anemia of chronic disease. Yet hepcidin levels are low in anemiaExpand
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Growth differentiation factor 15 in anaemia of chronic disease, iron deficiency anaemia and mixed type anaemia
Recently, the iron and erythropoiesis‐controlled growth differentiation factor 15 (GDF15) has been shown to inhibit the expression of hepcidin in β‐thalassaemia patients, thereby increasing ironExpand
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