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The glutamate/GABA‐glutamine cycle: aspects of transport, neurotransmitter homeostasis and ammonia transfer
Neurons are metabolically handicapped in the sense that they are not able to perform de novo synthesis of neurotransmitter glutamate and γ‐aminobutyric acid (GABA) from glucose. A metabolite shuttleExpand
Control of GluR1 AMPA Receptor Function by cAMP-Dependent Protein Kinase
Modulation of postsynaptic AMPA receptors in the brain by phosphorylation may play a role in the expression of synaptic plasticity at central excitatory synapses. It is known from biochemical studiesExpand
Elevation of the Extracellular Concentrations of Glutamate and Aspartate in Rat Hippocampus During Transient Cerebral Ischemia Monitored by Intracerebral Microdialysis
Abstract: Rats were implanted with 0.3‐mm‐diameter dialysis tubing through the hippocampus and subsequently perfused with Ringer's solution at a flow rate of 2 (μ1/min. Samples of the perfusateExpand
The Transcriptome and Metabolic Gene Signature of Protoplasmic Astrocytes in the Adult Murine Cortex
Protoplasmic astrocytes are critically important to energy metabolism in the CNS. Our current understanding of the metabolic interactions between neurons and glia is based on studies using culturedExpand
Neuronal Soluble Factors Differentially Regulate the Expression of the GLT1 and GLAST Glutamate Transporters in Cultured Astroglia
Abstract: The glutamate transporters in the plasma membranes of neural cells secure termination of the glutamatergic synaptic transmission and keep the glutamate levels below toxic concentrations.Expand
Glial cells in (patho)physiology
J. Neurochem. (2012) 121, 4–27.
Astrocytic Control of Biosynthesis and Turnover of the Neurotransmitters Glutamate and GABA
Glutamate and GABA are the quantitatively major neurotransmitters in the brain mediating excitatory and inhibitory signaling, respectively. These amino acids are metabolically interrelated and at theExpand
Neuronal and astrocytic shuttle mechanisms for cytosolic-mitochondrial transfer of reducing equivalents: current evidence and pharmacological tools.
The malate-aspartate shuttle and the glycerol phosphate shuttle act to transfer reducing equivalents from NADH in the cytosol to the mitochondria since the inner mitochondrial membrane is impermeableExpand
Astrocytes: Glutamate producers for neurons
In order for the brain to use the common amino acid glutamate as a neurotransmitter, it has been necessary to introduce a series of innovations that greatly restrict the availability of glutamate, soExpand
Glutamate transport and metabolism in astrocytes.
Glutamate uptake and metabolism was studied in cerebral cortical astrocytes. The expression of the astrocytic glutamate transporter GLAST was found to be stimulated by extracellular glutamate throughExpand