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PD 098059 Is a Specific Inhibitor of the Activation of Mitogen-activated Protein Kinase Kinase in Vitro and in Vivo(*)
PD 098059 has been shown previously to inhibit the dephosphorylated form of mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase-1 (MAPKK1) and a mutant MAPKK1(S217E,S221E), which has low levels of constitutiveExpand
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A synthetic inhibitor of the mitogen-activated protein kinase cascade.
Treatment of cells with a variety of growth factors triggers a phosphorylation cascade that leads to activation of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs, also called extracellular signal-regulatedExpand
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Insulin signalling and the regulation of glucose and lipid metabolism
The epidemic of type 2 diabetes and impaired glucose tolerance is one of the main causes of morbidity and mortality worldwide. In both disorders, tissues such as muscle, fat and liver become lessExpand
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Obesity induces a phenotypic switch in adipose tissue macrophage polarization.
Adipose tissue macrophages (ATMs) infiltrate adipose tissue during obesity and contribute to insulin resistance. We hypothesized that macrophages migrating to adipose tissue upon high-fat feeding mayExpand
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Inhibition of MAP Kinase Kinase Blocks the Differentiation of PC-12 Cells Induced by Nerve Growth Factor(*)
The mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAP kinase) pathway is thought to play an important role in the actions of neurotrophins. A small molecule inhibitor of the upstream kinase activator of MAPExpand
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Inflammatory links between obesity and metabolic disease.
The obesity epidemic has forced us to evaluate the role of inflammation in the health complications of obesity. This has led to a convergence of the fields of immunology and nutrient physiology andExpand
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Increased Inflammatory Properties of Adipose Tissue Macrophages Recruited During Diet-Induced Obesity
Although recent studies show that adipose tissue macrophages (ATMs) participate in the inflammatory changes in obesity and contribute to insulin resistance, the properties of these cells are not wellExpand
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Blockade of the MAP kinase pathway suppresses growth of colon tumors in vivo
The mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway is thought to be essential in cellular growth and differentiation. Here we report the discovery of a highly potent and selective inhibitor of the upstreamExpand
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CAP defines a second signalling pathway required for insulin-stimulated glucose transport
Insulin stimulates the transport of glucose into fat and muscle cells. Although the precise molecular mechanisms involved in this process remain uncertain, insulin initiates its actions by binding toExpand
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Signaling pathways in insulin action: molecular targets of insulin resistance.
Insulin is the most potent anabolic hormone known and is essential for appropriate tissue development, growth, and maintenance of whole-body glucose homeostasis. This hormone is secreted by the βExpand
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