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Hypothesis and experiment in the early development of Kekulé's Benzene theory
Summary This article attempts a contextual study of the origin and early development of August Kekule's theory of aromatic compounds. The terminus a quo is essentially August Hofmann's coining of the
Although there is substantial literature on robust estimation, most scientists continue to employ traditional methods. They remain skeptical about the practical benefit of employing robust techniques
Origins and Spread of the “Giessen Model” in University Science
  • A. Rocke
  • Philosophy, Medicine
  • 1 March 2003
The eclectic approach used in this paper places greater emphasis on contingencies of time, place, and discipline than many earlier studies of this problem have done; it is thus intended to provide a helpful complementary perspective.
The Quiet Revolution: Hermann Kolbe and the Science of Organic Chemistry
Organic chemist Hermann Kolbe (1818-1884) is the subject of this vigorously contextualized biography, which combines the approaches of cognitive and social history of science. Kolbe was one of the
It began with a daydream: the 150th anniversary of the Kekulé benzene structure.
  • A. Rocke
  • Chemistry, Medicine
    Angewandte Chemie
  • 2 January 2015
In January 1865, August Kekulé published his theory of the structure of benzene, which he later reported had come to him in a daydream about a snake biting its tail. Although other theories had been
Image and Reality: Kekulé, Kopp, and the Scientific Imagination
Chemists in the nineteenth century were faced with a particular problem: how to depict the atoms and molecules beyond the direct reach of our bodily senses. In visualizing this microworld, these
Nationalizing Science: Adolphe Wurtz and the Battle for French Chemistry
In 1869, Adolphe Wurtz (1817-1884) called chemistry "a French science." In fact, however, Wurtz was the most internationalist of French chemists. Born in Strasbourg and educated partly in the
What did “theory” mean to nineteenth-century chemists?
Some recent philosophers of science have argued that chemistry in the nineteenth century “largely lacked theoretical foundations, and showed little progress in supplying such foundations” until