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Endothelial-to-mesenchymal transition contributes to cardiac fibrosis
It is shown that cardiac fibrosis is associated with the emergence of fibroblasts originating from endothelial cells, suggesting an endothelial-mesenchymal transition (EndMT) similar to events that occur during formation of the atrioventricular cushion in the embryonic heart. Expand
Transforming growth factor type beta: rapid induction of fibrosis and angiogenesis in vivo and stimulation of collagen formation in vitro.
Further data are obtained to support a role for TGF-beta as an intrinsic mediator of collagen formation: conditioned media obtained from activated human tonsillar T lymphocytes contain greatly elevated levels of T GF-beta compared tomedia obtained from unactivated lymphocytes. Expand
Targeted disruption of SMAD3 results in impaired mucosal immunity and diminished T cell responsiveness to TGF‐β
The data suggest that SMAD3 has an important role in TGF‐β‐mediated regulation of T cell activation and mucosal immunity, and that the loss of these functions is responsible for chronic infection and the lethality of Smad3‐null mice. Expand
Transforming growth factor beta 1 null mutation in mice causes excessive inflammatory response and early death.
Pathological examination revealed an excessive inflammatory response with massive infiltration of lymphocytes and macrophages in many organs, but primarily in heart and lungs, which suggests a prominent role for TGF-beta 1 in homeostatic regulation of immune cell proliferation and extravasation into tissues. Expand
Mice lacking Smad3 show accelerated wound healing and an impaired local inflammatory response
It is reported that Smad3-null (Smad3ex8/ex8) mice paradoxically show accelerated cutaneous wound healing compared with wild-type mice, characterized by an increased rate of re-epithelialization and significantly reduced local infiltration of monocytes. Expand
The Retinoids : biology, chemistry, and medicine
lntroduction Michael B. Sporn and Anita B. Roberts The Synthetic Chemistry of Retinoids Marcia I. Dawson and Peter D. Hobbs Retinoid Skeletal-Bond Methodology / Methodology for Constructing the PolarExpand
Smad3 is key to TGF-beta-mediated epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition, fibrosis, tumor suppression and metastasis.
Focusing on models involving epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT), including injury to the lens and retina of the eye and to the kidney, it is found that loss of Smad3 blocks EMT and attenuates development of fibrotic sequelae. Expand
Production of transforming growth factor beta by human T lymphocytes and its potential role in the regulation of T cell growth
TGF-beta may be an important antigen-nonspecific regulator of human T cell proliferation, and important in T cell interaction with other cell types whose cellular functions are modulated by TGF- beta. Expand
The accumulated knowledge gained through extensive in vitro functional analyses and from in vivo animal models supports the concept that clinical therapies based on modulation of this cytokine represent an important new approach to the treatment of disorders of immune function. Expand
Human transforming growth factor-β complementary DNA sequence and expression in normal and transformed cells
The cDNA sequence indicates that the 112-amino acid monomeric form of the natural TGF-β homodimer is derived proteolytically from a much longer precursor polypeptide which may be secreted. Expand