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A simple and sensitive antigen retrieval method for free-floating and slide-mounted tissue sections
This method was found to enhance immunolabeling in glutaraldehyde-fixed tissue that had been prepared for ultrastructural examination, without having a deleterious effect on the ultrastructure. Expand
Differential loss of striatal projection neurons in Huntington disease.
Analysis of striatal target areas of Huntington disease indicated that in early and middle stages of HD, enkephalin-containing neurons projecting to the external segment of the globus pallidus were much more affected than substance P-containing neuron projections to the internal pallidal segment. Expand
Biotinylated dextran amine as an anterograde tracer for single- and double-labeling studies
Evaluated approaches for combining BDA labeling with other labeling methods show that BDA is effective for anterograde pathway tracing and can be used in double-label studies with other labeled methods. Expand
Pathway tracing using biotinylated dextran amines
Biotinylated dextran amines (BDA) are highly sensitive tools for anterograde and retrograde pathway tracing studies of the nervous system and can, therefore, be readily used in ultrastructural studies. Expand
Revised nomenclature for avian telencephalon and some related brainstem nuclei
The standard nomenclature that has been used for many telencephalic and related brainstem structures in birds is reviewed, with a rationale for each name change and evidence for any homologies implied by the new names. Expand
Distribution of choline acetyltransferase immunoreactivity in the pigeon brain
Comparison of the results in birds with those in other vertebrate species shows that the organization of the cholinergic systems in many regions of the avian brain is much like that in reptiles and mammals. Expand
Evidence for Differential Cortical Input to Direct Pathway versus Indirect Pathway Striatal Projection Neurons in Rats
Results suggest that striatonigral neurons preferentially receive input from IT-type cortical neurons, whereas striatopallidal neurons receive greater input from PT- type cortical neurons. Expand
Structural and functional evolution of the basal ganglia in vertebrates
The basal ganglia appears to have undergone a major elaboration during the evolutionary transition from amphibians to reptiles, which may have enabled amniotes to learn and/or execute a more sophisticated repertoire of behaviors and movements, and this ability may have been an important element of the successful adaptation of amniots to a fully terrestrial habitat. Expand
Do birds possess homologues of mammalian primary visual, somatosensory and motor cortices?
Recent data on the expression of several homeobox genes in the embryonic telencephalon of mammals, birds and reptiles support the homology of a part of the avian pallium, named the Wulst, and atExpand
Corticostriatal Projection Neurons – Dichotomous Types and Dichotomous Functions
Findings have implications for understanding how the direct and indirect pathways carry out their respective roles in movement facilitation and movement suppression, and for understanding the role of corticostriatal synaptic plasticity in adaptive motor control by the basal ganglia. Expand