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THE EVOLUTION OF COSTLY MATE PREFERENCES II. THE “HANDICAP” PRINCIPLE
We use a general additive quantitative genetic model to study the evolution of costly female mate choice by the “handicap” principle. Two necessary conditions must be satisfied for costly preferenceExpand
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Condition-dependent signalling of genetic variation in stalk-eyed flies
Handicap models of sexual selection predict that male sexual ornaments have strong condition-dependent expression and this allows females to evaluate male genetic quality. A number of previousExpand
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Fluctuating asymmetry and sexual selection
Fluctuating asymmetry occurs when an individual is unable to undergo identical development on both sides of a bilaterally symmetrical trait. Fluctuating asymmetry measures the sensitivity ofExpand
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The genetic basis of female mate preferences
We review the evidence for genetic variation in female and male mate preferences. Genetic differences between species and partially isolated races show that preferences can evolve and wereExpand
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Continual change in mate preferences
SECONDARY sexual characters are highly variable both within1 and between species2-6. Closely related species often differ markedly in sexual morphology but hardly at all in non-sexual traits2-5. HereExpand
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Effects of multiple mating and male eye span on female reproductive output in the stalk-eyed fly, Cyrtodiopsis dalmanni
Females of the stalk-eyed fly, Cyrtodiopsis dalmanni, mate repeatedly during their lifetime and exhibit mating preference for males with large eye span. How these mating decisions affect femaleExpand
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Eyespan reflects reproductive quality in wild stalk-eyed flies
Handicap models of sexual selection propose that females use male sexual ornaments as a cue in mate choice because they reflect commodities that increase female fitness, either directly orExpand
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Male sexual ornament size but not asymmetry reflects condition in stalk–eyed flies
Models of sexual selection predict that females use ornament size to evaluate male condition. It has also been suggested that ornament asymmetry provides females with accurate information aboutExpand
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Size-dependent mate preference in the stalk-eyed fly Cyrtodiopsis dalmanni
We investigated size-dependent mate choice in the stalk-eyed fly Cyrtodiopsis dalmanni. In this species, females prefer to mate with males with larger eyespans. We experimentally manipulated femaleExpand
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