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N‐back working memory paradigm: A meta‐analysis of normative functional neuroimaging studies
One of the most popular experimental paradigms for functional neuroimaging studies of working memory has been the n‐back task, in which subjects are asked to monitor the identity or location of aExpand
Common regions of the human frontal lobe recruited by diverse cognitive demands
Though many neuroscientific methods have been brought to bear in the search for functional specializations within prefrontal cortex, little consensus has emerged. To assess the contribution ofExpand
Choosing between Small, Likely Rewards and Large, Unlikely Rewards Activates Inferior and Orbital Prefrontal Cortex
The results suggest that decision making recruits neural activity from multiple regions of the inferior PFC that receive information from a diverse set of cortical and limbic inputs, and that the contribution of the orbitofrontal regions may involve processing changes in reward-related information. Expand
Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery (CANTAB): a factor analytic study of a large sample of normal elderly volunteers.
The CANTAB battery, which is based on tests used to identify the neural substrates of learning and memory in non-human primates, has now been extensively used in the assessment of various forms of dementia and also validated on patients with neurosurgical lesions of the frontal and temporal lobes. Expand
Defining the Neural Mechanisms of Probabilistic Reversal Learning Using Event-Related Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging
Event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging was used to measure blood oxygenation level-dependent responses in 13 young healthy human volunteers during performance of a probabilistic reversal-learning task, finding that signal change in this ventral frontostriatal circuit is associated with reversal learning and is uncontaminated by negative feedback. Expand
Planning and spatial working memory following frontal lobe lesions in man
Patients with unilateral or bilateral frontal lobe excisions were compared with age and IQ matched controls on a computerized battery of tests of spatial working memory and planning, revealing an impairment of higher cognitive functioning following frontal lobe damage. Expand
The problem of functional localization in the human brain
Methods for reporting location in functional imaging are reviewed and the problems that arise from the great variability in brain anatomy between individuals are discussed. Expand
Contrasting mechanisms of impaired attentional set-shifting in patients with frontal lobe damage or Parkinson's disease.
The results suggest that the gross set-shifting deficits reported in both frontal lobe patients and patients with Parkinson's disease may involve fundamentally different, though related, cognitive processes, and that these may be differentially affected by medication. Expand
Putting brain training to the test
Although improvements were observed in every one of the cognitive tasks that were trained, no evidence was found for transfer effects to untrained tasks, even when those tasks were cognitively closely related. Expand
Anterior prefrontal cortex: insights into function from anatomy and neuroimaging
The results indicate a specific role for this region in integrating the outcomes of two or more separate cognitive operations in the pursuit of a higher behavioural goal. Expand