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Multicenter Evaluation of a Sequence-Based Protocol for Subtyping Shiga Toxins and Standardizing Stx Nomenclature
Using a consistent schema for nomenclature of the Stx toxins and stx genes by phylogenetic sequence-based relatedness of the holotoxin proteins, a typing approach should obviate the need to bioassay each newly described toxin and that predicts important biological characteristics. Expand
Comparison of the relative toxicities of Shiga-like toxins type I and type II for mice
Data suggest that structural/functional differences between the two toxins, possibly involving holotoxin stability and/or receptor affinity, may contribute to the differential LD50s in mice. Expand
Structure of Shiga Toxin Type 2 (Stx2) from Escherichia coli O157:H7*
The crystal structure of Stx2 from E. coli O157:H7 was determined and it was found that, in contrast to Stx, the active site of the A-subunit of StX2 is accessible in the holotoxin, and a molecule of formic acid and a water molecule mimic the binding of the adenine base of the substrate. Expand
Shiga and Shiga-like toxins.
Although Shigella dysenteriae serotype 1 (Shiga) toxin was discovered more than 80 years ago (18) and has long been recognized as one of the most potent bacterial toxins (18, 116), early efforts toExpand
Two toxin-converting phages from Escherichia coli O157:H7 strain 933 encode antigenically distinct toxins with similar biologic activities
Findings indicate that E. coli produces two genetically related but antigenically distinct cytotoxins with similar biologic activities which are proposed to name Shiga-like toxins I and II. Expand
Shiga-like toxin-converting phages from Escherichia coli strains that cause hemorrhagic colitis or infantile diarrhea.
One of these phages and another Shiga-like toxin-converting phage from an Escherichia coli O26 isolate associated with infantile diarrhea were closely related in terms of morphology, virion polypeptides, DNA restriction fragments, lysogenic immunity, and heat stability, although a difference in host range was noted. Expand
Two copies of Shiga-like toxin II-related genes common in enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli strains are responsible for the antigenic heterogeneity of the O157:H- strain E32511
Thirty-two clinical isolates of Shiga-like toxin (SLT)-producing Escherichia coli associated with single cases or outbreaks of bloody diarrhea, hemorrhagic colitis, the hemolytic uremic syndrome, orExpand
The diarrheal response of humans to some classic serotypes of enteropathogenic Escherichia coli is dependent on a plasmid encoding an enteroadhesiveness factor.
Diarrhea was caused by 10(8) or 10(10) organisms of an O114:H2 class II EPEC strain in six of 11 volunteers, confirmed that class IIEPEC are pathogenic by a mechanism not involving Hep-2 adhesiveness. Expand
Shiga toxin: biochemistry, genetics, mode of action, and role in pathogenesis.
The definitive description of this organism was provided by Kiyoshi Shiga following an extensive dysentery epidemic in Japan in 1896 (Shiga 1898), and in 1900 Flexner concluded that shigellosis was due to a “toxic agent rather than to an infection per se”. Expand
Mouse model for colonization and disease caused by enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli O157:H7
The virulence of E. coli O157:H7 strain 933cu-rev may reflect its ability to grow well in mucus and colonize the small as well as large bowel. Expand