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Inducible nitric oxide synthase expression in activated rat microglial cultures is downregulated by exogenous prostaglandin E2 and by cyclooxygenase inhibitors
Prostaglandins and nitric oxide (NO) are among the numerous substances released by activated microglial cells, the brain resident macrophages, and they mediate several important microglial functions.Expand
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Opposite regulation of prostaglandin E2 synthesis by transforming growth factor-β1 and interleukin 10 in activated microglial cultures
We have recently shown that prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) synthesis in activated microglia is tightly regulated by several substances (NO, neurotransmitters, pro-inflammatory cytokines), that mightExpand
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Up‐regulation of Cyclooxygenase‐2 Expression in Cultured Microglia by Prostaglandin E2, Cyclic AMP and Non‐steroidal Anti‐inflammatory Drugs
Cyclooxygenase‐2, the inducible isoform of cyclooxygenase, is highly expressed in microglial cells activated by bacterial lipopolysaccharide and is a major regulatory factor in the synthesis ofExpand
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Human immunodeficiency virus type‐1 Tat protein induces nuclear factor (NF)‐κB activation and oxidative stress in microglial cultures by independent mechanisms
We have extended our previous findings and shown that human immunodeficiency virus Tat protein, in addition to nitric oxide (NO), stimulated rat microglial cultures to release pro‐inflammatoryExpand
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Interferon‐γ and Nitric Oxide Down‐Regulate Lipopolysaccharide‐Induced Prostanoid Production in Cultured Rat Microglial Cells by Inhibiting Cyclooxygenase‐2 Expression
Abstract: We have used purified microglial cultures obtained from neonatal rat brains to study some aspects of the regulation of prostanoid production in these cells. We found that nitric oxide,Expand
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Transgenic Mouse In Vivo Library of Human Down Syndrome Critical Region 1: Association between DYRK1A Overexpression, Brain Development Abnormalities, and Cell Cycle Protein Alteration
Down syndrome is the most frequent genetic cause of mental retardation, having an incidence of 1 in 700 live births. In the present study we used a transgenic mouse in vivo library consisting of 4Expand
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Effects of phosphatidylserine on p38 mitogen activated protein kinase, cyclic AMP responding element binding protein and nuclear factor‐κB activation in resting and activated microglial cells
In the last few years, the interaction between phosphatidylserine (PS), a phospholipid that becomes permanently exposed on the external cell surface in the early phases of apoptosis, and its specificExpand
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Paracetamol effectively reduces prostaglandin E2 synthesis in brain macrophages by inhibiting enzymatic activity of cyclooxygenase but not phospholipase and prostaglandin E synthase
Epidemiological studies indicate that nonsteroidal anti‐inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are neuroprotective, although the mechanisms underlying their beneficial effect remain largely unknown. Given theirExpand
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Prolonged exposure of microglia to lipopolysaccharide modifies the intracellular signaling pathways and selectively promotes prostaglandin E2 synthesis
During inflammatory or degenerative processes microglial cells are likely to be exposed to activating agents that persist in brain parenchyma for prolonged periods. As our knowledge on microglialExpand
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Reorientation of prostanoid production accompanies “activation” of adult microglial cells in culture
Using morphological, immunocytochemical, and functional parameters we have previously shown that highly purified adult rat microglial cells undergo a process of “activation” when cultured in aExpand
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