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Does contact reduce prejudice or does prejudice reduce contact? A longitudinal test of the contact hypothesis among majority and minority groups in three European countries.
For both majority and minority members, contact effects on negative emotions were stronger when outgroup contacts were perceived as being typical of their group, and contact effects were also mediated by intergroup anxiety.
Social Discrimination and Tolerance in Intergroup Relations: Reactions to Intergroup Difference
A theoretical approach to social discrimination and intergroup relations characterized by tolerance and plurality is presented and central to the analysis is the question of how members deal with intergroup difference.
Superordinate identities and intergroup conflict: The ingroup projection model
This chapter summarises results from a research programme on the psychological basis of tolerance and discrimination in intergroup relations, with particular consideration of the role of
Positive–Negative Asymmetry in Social Discrimination
Minimal group experiments showed that mere categorization of individuals into arbitrary social groups can be sufficient to elicit ingroup favouritism. This effect has been qualified by demonstrating
Vicarious intergroup contact effects
This contribution examines the role of vicarious contact (observing in-group members having successful cross-group contact) as a tool to improve intergroup relations. Expanding previous research on
Socio-structural characteristics of intergroup relations and identity management strategies: Results from a field study in East Germany.
In a field study in East Germany, predictions by Social Identity Theory concerning relations among socio-structural characteristics of intergroup relations (stability, legitimacy, permeability) and
Towards tolerance: Representations of superordinate categories and perceived ingroup prototypicality
According to Mummendey and Wenzel (1999), group members tend to perceive their ingroup, relative to an outgroup, as more prototypical of the superordinate category encompassing both groups. Hence,
Responding to negative social identity: a taxonomy of identity management strategies
Taken from literature on social identity theory and social comparison theory, 12 strategies of identity management were identified as possible responses to negative social identity. A taxonomy with
The Ingroup as Pars Pro Toto: Projection From the Ingroup Onto the Inclusive Category as a Precursor to Social Discrimination
Two correlational studies yielded evidence that group members tend to perceive their ingroup as relatively prototypical for the inclusive category, members highly identified with both ingroup and inclusive category (dual identity) tend to project most, and relative prototypicality is related to negative attitudes toward the outgroup.
Of bikers, teachers and Germans: groups' diverging views about their prototypicality.
It was found that different groups of motor bikers perceived their own subgroup to be the more typical biker group than the respective out-group, and the relative character of in-group projection was demonstrated in an intergroup context with strong reality constraints due to differences in group size, status and power.