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Homogeneous, heterogeneous and enzymatic catalysis for transesterification of high free fatty acid oil (waste cooking oil) to biodiesel: a review.
In the last few years, biodiesel has emerged as one of the most potential renewable energy to replace current petrol-derived diesel. It is a renewable, biodegradable and non-toxic fuel which can beExpand
Utilization of oil palm as a source of renewable energy in Malaysia
Malaysia is currently the world's largest producer and exporter of palm oil. Malaysia produces about 47% of the world's supply of palm oil. Malaysia also accounts the highest percentage of globalExpand
Palm oil: Addressing issues and towards sustainable development
The quest for renewable energy has intensified since the escalating price of crude petroleum in the recent years. Renewable energy such as biodiesel has the potential to replace petroleum-derivedExpand
High-rate anaerobic digestion of palm oil mill effluent in an upflow anaerobic sludge-fixed film bioreactor
Abstract The upflow anaerobic sludge-fixed film (UASFF) reactor is one of the granular sludge bioreactors that are used for the rapid biotransformation of organic matter to methane with the help ofExpand
Bioconversion of synthesis gas to second generation biofuels: A review
The ever increasing concerns over fluctuating price of oil and the possible future supply constrains have reinforced the need for alternative fuel resources. Use of synthesis gas (syngas) to generateExpand
Gasification of lignocellulosic biomass in fluidized beds for renewable energy development: A review
A literature review on gasification of lignocellulosic biomass in various types of fluidized bed gasifiers is presented. The effect of several process parameters such as catalytic bed material, bedExpand
Ethanol and acetate production from synthesis gas via fermentation processes using anaerobic bacterium
Abstract Synthesis gas was used to produce ethanol and acetate via fermentation processes. A strict autotrophic bacterium, Clostridium ljungdahlii , was grown on syngas to investigate production ofExpand
Energy for sustainable development in Malaysia: Energy policy and alternative energy
Energy is often known as the catalyst for development. Globally, the per capita consumption of energy is often used as a barometer to measure the level of economic development in a particularExpand
Malaysian palm oil: Surviving the food versus fuel dispute for a sustainable future
For the past few decades, palm oil has gone through a revolution that few would have predicted. From a humble source of edible oil that was heavily criticized as being un-healthy and un-fit for humanExpand
Potential of hydrogen from oil palm biomass as a source of renewable energy worldwide
Abstract Various catastrophes related to extreme weather events such as floods, hurricanes, droughts and heat waves occurring on the Earth in the recent times are definitely a clear warning sign fromExpand