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Putting the parts together: combining in vitro methods to test for skin sensitizing potentials.
Allergic contact dermatitis is a common skin disease and is elicited by repeated skin contact with an allergen. In the regulatory context, currently only data from animal experiments are acceptableExpand
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Assessing skin sensitization hazard in mice and men using non-animal test methods.
Sensitization, the prerequisite event in the development of allergic contact dermatitis, is a key parameter in both hazard and risk assessments. The pathways involved have recently been formallyExpand
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Integrated Testing Strategies (ITS) for safety assessment.
Integrated testing strategies (ITS), as opposed to single definitive tests or fixed batteries, are expected to efficiently combine different information sources in a quantifiable fashion to satisfy an information need, in this case for regulatory safety assessments. Expand
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LuSens: a keratinocyte based ARE reporter gene assay for use in integrated testing strategies for skin sensitization hazard identification.
Allergic contact dermatitis can develop following repeated exposure to allergenic substances. To date, hazard identification is still based on animal studies as non-animal alternatives have not yetExpand
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The Use of Reconstructed Human Epidermis for Skin Absorption Testing: Results of the Validation Study
A formal validation study was performed, in order to investigate whether the commercially-available reconstructed human epidermis (RHE) models, EPISKIN®, EpiDerm™ and SkinEthic®, are suitable for inExpand
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Comparative studies on the ocular and dermal irritation potential of surfactants.
Comparative studies on the irritation potential of 18 surfactants were performed using the same stock solution of surfactant for each study. The ocular irritation potential of surfactants was studiedExpand
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Reconstructed Human Epidermis for Skin Absorption Testing: Results of the German Prevalidation Study
Exposure to chemicals absorbed by the skin can threaten human health. In order to standardise the predictive testing of percutaneous absorption for regulatory purposes, the OECD adopted guidelineExpand
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An interlaboratory comparison of methods used to assess antioxidant potentials 1
Many analytical methods are used to measure the antioxidative activity of substances yet little is known about the comparability of the test results between laboratories. After an initial evaluationExpand
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Non-animal test methods for predicting skin sensitization potentials
Contact allergies are complex diseases, and it is estimated that 15–20 % of the general population suffers from contact allergy, with increasing prevalence. Evaluation of the sensitization potentialExpand
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Evaluating the sensitization potential of surfactants: integrating data from the local lymph node assay, guinea pig maximization test, and in vitro methods in a weight-of-evidence approach.
An integral part of hazard and safety assessments is the estimation of a chemical's potential to cause skin sensitization. Currently, only animal tests (OECD 406 and 429) are accepted in a regulatoryExpand
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