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The chemokine system in diverse forms of macrophage activation and polarization.
Recent evidence suggests that differential modulation of the chemokine system integrates polarized macrophages in pathways of resistance to, or promotion of, microbial pathogens and tumors, or immunoregulation, tissue repair and remodeling. Expand
Macrophage polarization: tumor-associated macrophages as a paradigm for polarized M2 mononuclear phagocytes.
These functionally polarized cells, and similarly oriented or immature dendritic cells present in tumors, have a key role in subversion of adaptive immunity and in inflammatory circuits that promote tumor growth and progression. Expand
Cancer-related inflammation
The molecular pathways of this cancer-related inflammation are now being unravelled, resulting in the identification of new target molecules that could lead to improved diagnosis and treatment. Expand
Macrophage plasticity and polarization: in vivo veritas.
The identification of mechanisms and molecules associated with macrophage plasticity and polarized activation provides a basis for Macrophage-centered diagnostic and therapeutic strategies. Expand
Macrophage activation and polarization.
The main functions of polarized macrophages are reviewed and the perspectives of this field are discussed, which include high endocytic clearance capacities and trophic factor synthesis, accompanied by reduced pro-inflammatory cytokine secretion. Expand
Macrophage activation and polarization: nomenclature and experimental guidelines.
A set of standards encompassing three principles-the source of macrophages, definition of the activators, and a consensus collection of markers to describe macrophage activation are described with the goal of unifying experimental standards for diverse experimental scenarios. Expand
Macrophage plasticity and interaction with lymphocyte subsets: cancer as a paradigm
A better understanding of the molecular basis of myelomonocytic cell plasticity will open new vistas in immunopathology and therapeutic intervention and provide a paradigm for macrophage plasticity and function. Expand
Inflammation and cancer: back to Virchow?
A rationale for the use of cytokine and chemokine blockade, and further investigation of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, in the chemoprevention and treatment of malignant diseases is provided. Expand
Transcriptional Profiling of the Human Monocyte-to-Macrophage Differentiation and Polarization: New Molecules and Patterns of Gene Expression1
Transcriptome profiling reveals novel molecules and signatures associated with human monocyte-to-macrophage differentiation and polarized activation which may represent candidate targets in pathophysiology. Expand
Neutrophils in the activation and regulation of innate and adaptive immunity
Neutrophils have long been viewed as the final effector cells of an acute inflammatory response, with a primary role in the clearance of extracellular pathogens. However, more recent evidence hasExpand