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A phylogenetic supertree of the bats (Mammalia: Chiroptera)
We present the first estimate of the phylogenetic relationships among all 916 extant and nine recently extinct species of bats (Mammalia: Chiroptera), a group that accounts for almost one‐quarter of
The Functions of Laryngeal Air Sacs in Primates: A New Hypothesis
TLDR
The results suggest that lack of sacs in the smaller gibbons and in humans is a derived feature, and apes and larger gibbons may be able to produce fast extended call sequences without the risk of hyperventilating because they can re-breathe exhaled air from their air sacs.
The evolution of human speech: the role of enhanced breathing control.
TLDR
Evidence presented herein shows that modern humans and Neanderthals have an expanded thoracic vertebral canal compared with australopithecines and Homo ergaster, who had canals of the same relative size as extant nonhuman primates.
Comment on "The Brain of LB1, Homo floresiensis"
TLDR
Consideration of more appropriate microcephalic syndromes and specimens supports the hypothesis of modern human microcephaly.
The Evolution of Non-Maternal Care in Anthropoid Primates: A Test of the Hypotheses
TLDR
The results suggest that mothers allow non-maternal care of their infants in order to increase their own reproductive output, and suggests that mothers and infants might come into conflict over transfer to other carers.
Cognitive bias in a non-human primate: husbandry procedures influence cognitive indicators of psychological well-being in captive rhesus macaques
TLDR
A touchscreen-based cognitive-bias task developed for use with captive rhesus macaques, which measured whether touchscreen responses to ambiguous stimuli were affected by husbandry procedures presumed to induce positive and negative shifts in affective state, respectively.
Gestation period, neonatal size and maternal investment in placental mammals
TLDR
It is shown here that altricial and precocial mammals can be clearly distinguished by gestation period relative to maternal weight, and an overall equation can be derived across species which links neonatal weight to a combined function of gestation period and a fetal growth parameter.
Increased breathing control: Another factor in the evolution of human language
TLDR
Evidence of the importance of breathing control to human speech, as well as evidence that the authors' capabilities greatly exceed those of nonhuman primates are presented.
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