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Cytokines and pain.
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES Cytokines are necessary for the inflammatory response, favoring proper wound healing. However, exaggerated proinflammatory cytokine production can manifest systemically asExpand
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Cetamina e analgesia preemptiva
JUSTIFICATIVA Y OBJETIVOS: Desde la descubierta de que la cetamina bloquea los receptores NMDA en los neuronios del cuerno dorsal de la medula, ella ha sido usada para inhibir o reducir laExpand
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Assessing the effects of transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) in post-thoracotomy analgesia.
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES Transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) is commonly used to treat musculoskeletal pain, but it may also be indicated for postoperative analgesia. The objective ofExpand
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Analgesia Preemptiva * Preemptive Analgesia
Justificativa e Objetivos O controle da dor pós-operatória tem sido muito investigado nas últimas décadas, quando se verificou que a analgesia pós-operatória era inadequada. O termo “preemptiva”Expand
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Serum cytokine levels in patients with chronic low back pain due to herniated disc: analytical cross-sectional study.
CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE the role of immune response and proinflammatory cytokines in the pathogenesis of chronic pain has been of growing interest. In order to evaluate whether there is any associationExpand
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Review of the use of gabapentin in the control of postoperative pain.
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES Gabapentin has been used as adjuvant in the treatment of postoperative pain with a neuropathic component. It is responsible for the inhibition of central sensitization,Expand
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Intraoperative intravenous lidocaine.
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES Most patients undergoing surgery experience moderate to severe pain, indicating the need to improve the anesthetic technique. Intravenous lidocaine has been widely used inExpand
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Comparison of Acupuncture to Injection for Myofascial Trigger Point Pain
Objectives:  Many treatments have been proposed for myofascial pain syndrome. The objective of this study was to compare the analgesic effect of acupuncture to trigger point injection combined withExpand
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Effects of Preoperative Intravenous Clonidine in Patients Undergoing Cataract Surgery: A Double-Blind, Randomized Trial
Objectives. The aim of this study was to assess the effects of clonidine on intraoperative analgesia, sedation, intraocular and blood pressure, arrhythmia, and ischemia. Methods. Forty patientsExpand
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Avaliação do efeito da estimulação nervosa elétrica transcutânea (TENS) para analgesia após toracotomia
JUSTIFICATIVA E OBJETIVOS: A estimulacao nervosa eletrica transcutânea (TENS) e uma modalidade frequentemente usada para o tratamento da dor musculoesqueletica, mas tambem pode ser indicada em casoExpand
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