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Genomic Characterization of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome-Related Coronavirus in European Bats and Classification of Coronaviruses Based on Partial RNA-Dependent RNA Polymerase Gene Sequences
An evaluation of CoV in rhinolophid and vespertilionid bat species common in Europe found that proteins 3b and 6 were highly divergent from those proteins in all known SARS-related CoV, highlighting the importance of assessments of the zoonotic potential of widely distributed bat-borne CoV.
Bats host major mammalian paramyxoviruses
Major discoveries include evidence of an origin of Hendra- and Nipah virus in Africa, identification of a bat virus conspecific with the human mumps virus, detection of close relatives of respiratory syncytial virus, mouse pneumonia- and canine distemper virus in bats, as well as direct evidence of Sendai virus in rodents.
Evidence for Novel Hepaciviruses in Rodents
The so-far largest collection of small-mammal samples from around the world qualified to be screened for bloodborne viruses, including sera and organs from 4,770 rodents (41 species); and sera from 2,939 bats (51 species) supported classification of all viruses as hepaciviruses.
Bats Worldwide Carry Hepatitis E Virus-Related Viruses That Form a Putative Novel Genus within the Family Hepeviridae
Sequence- and distance-based taxonomic evaluations suggested that bat hepeviruses constitute a distinct genus within the family Hepeviridae and that at least three other genera comprising human, rodent, and avian hepe Viruses can be designated, which may imply that hepe viruses invaded mammalian hosts nonrecently and underwent speciation according to their host restrictions.
Role of recombination in evolution of enteroviruses
  • A. Lukashev
  • Biology
    Reviews in medical virology
  • 1 May 2005
It can be concluded that the enterovirus species exist as a worldwide reservoir of genetic material comprising a limited quantity of capsid gene sets defining a finite number of serotypes and a range of non‐structural genes that recombine frequently to produce new virus variants.
Evidence of frequent recombination among human adenoviruses.
Analysis of the available complete genome sequences of AdB, AdC and AdD species showed that recombination shuffles genome fragments within a species, but not between species, and suggested recombination among circulating adenoviruses is very frequent.
Recombination in circulating Human enterovirus B: independent evolution of structural and non-structural genome regions.
The complete nucleotide sequences of eight Human enterovirus B (HEV-B) strains were determined and the star-like topology of the phylogenetic trees for these genome regions identified these genome parts as recombination hot spots.
Occurrence, function and evolutionary origins of ‘2A-like’ sequences in virus genomes
Phylogenetic analyses of 2A-like sequences and RNA-dependent RNA polymerases indicated multiple, independent, acquisitions of these sequences at different stages during virus evolution.
Causes and Implications of Codon Usage Bias in RNA Viruses
A hypothetical innate immunity sensor for CpG in RNA could partially explain the codon usage bias, but due to dependence of virus translation upon biased host translation machinery, experimental studies are required to further explore the source of dinucleotide bias in RNA viruses.