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In the Beginning: The First Sources of Light and the Reionization of the Universe
Abstract The formation of the first stars and quasars marks the transformation of the universe from its smooth initial state to its clumpy current state. In popular cosmological models, the firstExpand
The formation of the first low-mass stars from gas with low carbon and oxygen abundances
The first stars in the Universe are predicted to have been much more massive than the Sun. Gravitational condensation, accompanied by cooling of the primordial gas via molecular hydrogen, yields aExpand
Jet-Launching Structure Resolved Near the Supermassive Black Hole in M87
Black Hole Close-Up M87 is a giant elliptical galaxy about 55 million light-years away. Accretion of matter onto its central massive black hole is thought to power its relativistic jet. To probeExpand
Element Diffusion in the Solar Interior
We study the diffusion of helium and other heavy elements in the solar interior by solving exactly the set of flow equations developed by Burgers for a multi-component fluid, including the residualExpand
Formation of the First Supermassive Black Holes
We consider the physical conditions under which supermassive black holes could have formed inside the first galaxies. Our smoothed particle hydrodynamics simulations indicate that metal-free galaxiesExpand
Discovering Planetary Systems through Gravitational Microlenses
Planetary systems of Galactic disk stars can be detected as microlenses of stars in the Galactic bulge. Planets in a solar-like system positioned half-way to the Galactic center should leave aExpand
Self-regulated Growth of Supermassive Black Holes in Galaxies as the Origin of the Optical and X-Ray Luminosity Functions of Quasars
We postulate that supermassive black holes grow in the centers of galaxies until they unbind the galactic gas that feeds them. We show that the corresponding self-regulation condition yields aExpand
Generic Spectrum and Ionization Efficiency of a Heavy Initial Mass Function for the First Stars
We calculate the generic spectral signature of an early population of massive stars at high redshifts. For metal-free stars with mass above 300 M☉, we find that the combined spectral luminosity perExpand
Generation of Magnetic Fields in the Relativistic Shock of Gamma-Ray Burst Sources
We show that the relativistic two-stream instability can naturally generate strong magnetic fields with 10-5-10-1 of the equipartition energy density, in the collisionless shocks of gamma-ray burstExpand
Birth of a relativistic outflow in the unusual γ-ray transient Swift J164449.3+573451
Active galactic nuclei, which are powered by long-term accretion onto central supermassive black holes, produce relativistic jets with lifetimes of at least one million years, and the observation ofExpand