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From Offshore to Onshore: Multiple Origins of Shallow-Water Corals from Deep-Sea Ancestors
It is shown that stylasterid corals (Cnidaria: Hydrozoa: Stylasteridae)—the second most diverse group of hard corals—originated and diversified extensively in the deep sea, and subsequently invaded shallow waters, the first robust evidence that an important group of tropical shallow-water marine animals evolved from deep-water ancestors.
Cryptic species, life cycles, and the phylogeny of Clytia (Cnidaria: Hydrozoa: Campanulariidae)
The results suggest that the nearly-cosmopolitan distribution attributed to some species of Clytia may be due to the non-recognition of morphologically similar species with more restricted ranges.
Phylogenetics of Trachylina (Cnidaria: Hydrozoa) with new insights on the evolution of some problematical taxa
Molecular data are brought to bear on the question of phylogenetic relationships within Trachylina, suggesting that the polyp stage has been lost independently at least two times within trachyline evolution.
Overview of the order Zoantharia (Cnidaria: Anthozoa) in Brazil
This study conducted shallow-water coastal and oceanic island sampling in parallel with an extensive literature review to summarize the knowledge of the order Zoantharia from Brazil and shows the presence of at least 13 zoantharian species in Brazilian waters.
Contrasting patterns of connectivity among endemic and widespread fire coral species (Millepora spp.) in the tropical Southwestern Atlantic
Fire corals are the only branching corals in the South Atlantic and provide an important ecological role as habitat-builders in the region. With three endemic species (Millepora brazilensis, M.
Phylogenetic placement of the enigmatic parasite, Polypodium hydriforme, within the Phylum Cnidaria
Evidence is provided that Polypodium is indeed a cnidarian and is either the sister taxon to Hydrozoa, or part of the hydrozoan clade, Leptothecata, and previously conflicting hypotheses concerning the phylogenetic placement ofPolypodium can be reconciled.
Diet and Diversification in the Evolution of Coral Reef Fishes
It is suggested that ecological opportunity may play an important role in understanding the diversification of reef-fish lineages, because the evolution of species-rich clades was associated with a switch to low quality food in three of the four clades analyzed, which is consistent with a density-dependent model of diversification.
Millepora alcicornis (Hydrozoa: Capitata) at Ascension Island: confirmed identity based on morphological and molecular analyses
This record, based on a recent expedition to Ascension, is the first in which the identification of a Millepora coral is supported by photographic evidence from the field and by morphological and molecular analyses of collected specimens.
Occurrence of the non-indigenous brittle star Ophiothela cf. mirabilis Verrill, 1867 (Echinodermata, Ophiuroidea) in natural and anthropogenic habitats off Santa Catarina, Brazil
The brittle star Ophiothela cf. mirabilis, an ophiuroid introduced in the Atlantic, has expanded its range north to Trinidad and Tobago and south to Paraná, Brazil. By monitoring the coast of Santa