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Symbioses of grasses with seedborne fungal endophytes.
The endophytes gain shelter, nutrition, and dissemination via host propagules, and can contribute an array of host fitness enhancements including protection against insect and vertebrate herbivores and root nematodes, enhancements of drought tolerance and nutrient status, and improved growth particularly of the root. Expand
Nomenclatural realignment of Neotyphodium species with genus Epichloë
Nomenclatural rule changes in the International Code of Nomenclature for algae, fungi and plants, adopted at the 18th International Botanical Congress in Melbourne, Australia, in 2011, provide for aExpand
Prevalence of interspecific hybrids amongst asexual fungal endophytes of grasses
It is concluded that, whereas horizontally transmissible species had haploid genomes and speciation occurred cladistically, most of the strictly seedborne mutualists were interspecific hybrids with heteroploid (aneuploid or polyploid) genomes. Expand
Plant-Symbiotic Fungi as Chemical Engineers: Multi-Genome Analysis of the Clavicipitaceae Reveals Dynamics of Alkaloid Loci
The organization and dynamics of alkaloid loci and abundant repeat blocks in the epichloae suggested that these fungi are under selection for alkaloids diversification, and it is suggested that such selection is related to the variable life histories of the epICHloae, their protective roles as symbionts, and their associations with the highly speciose and ecologically diverse cool-season grasses. Expand
Taxonomy of Acremonium endophytes of tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea), meadow fescue (F. pratensis) and perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne)
Alkaloid production in the natural host grass-Acremonium associations proved a useful taxonomic criterion, with the profile of alkaloids being consistent in the host plants for all isolate within a single isozyme phenotype and for most isolates within a taxonomic grouping. Expand
Different Levels of Protective Alkaloids in Grasses with Stroma-forming and Seed-transmitted Epichloë/Neotyphodium Endophytes
Levels of N-formylloline, N-acetylloline, ergovaline, and peramine are determined in 18 European grasses naturally infected with seed-transmitted Neotyphodium endophytes or sexual Epichloë species to determine whether these alkaloids enhance host survival through increased protection from herbivores and, thus, may be particularly favored in asexualEndophytes that depend on host seed-production for their dispersal. Expand
ITS rDNA phylogeny of Iranian strains of Cytospora and associated teleomorphs
The phylogenetic relationships of the Iranian strains, along with sequences of 13 reference strains from GenBank, were inferred from ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 nuclear rDNA sequences, suggesting that morphological and phylogenetic species concepts overlap and that in most cases they are meaningful for correct species identification. Expand
Origin of a fungal symbiont of perennial ryegrass by interspecific hybridization of a mutualist with the ryegrass choke pathogen, Epichloë typhina.
Results indicate that LpTG-2 is a heteroploid derived from an interspecific hybrid, and a proposed model for the evolution of Lp TG-2 involves infection of a L. perenne-A. Expand
Systematics, distribution, and host specificity of grass endophytes.
Clavicipitaceous endophytes (Ascomycetes) are distributed worldwide in many grasses and sedges forming a perennial and often mutualistic association with their hosts, and specific isozyme genotypes found on several host species suggest that host-specific physiological races may occur. Expand