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Elevated CO2 effects on plant carbon, nitrogen, and water relations: six important lessons from FACE.
- A. Leakey, E. Ainsworth, C. Bernacchi, A. Rogers, S. Long, D. Ort
- Environmental ScienceJournal of experimental botany
- 1 July 2009
Some of the lessons learned from the long-term investment in Free-Air CO(2) Enrichment experiments are described, where many of these lessons have been most clearly demonstrated in crop systems, and have important implications for natural systems.
Food for Thought: Lower-Than-Expected Crop Yield Stimulation with Rising CO2 Concentrations
- S. Long, E. Ainsworth, A. Leakey, J. Nösberger, D. Ort
- Environmental Science, MedicineScience
- 30 June 2006
Free-air concentration enrichment (FACE) technology has now facilitated large-scale trials of the major grain crops at elevated [CO2] under fully open-air field conditions, which casts serious doubt on projections that rising carbon dioxide concentration will fully offset losses due to climate change.
Increasing CO2 threatens human nutrition
It is reported that C3 grains and legumes have lower concentrations of zinc and iron when grown under field conditions at the elevated atmospheric CO2 concentration predicted for the middle of this century.
Photosynthesis, Productivity, and Yield of Maize Are Not Affected by Open-Air Elevation of CO2 Concentration in the Absence of Drought1[OA]
Growth at elevated [CO2] did not stimulate photosynthesis, biomass, or yield in the absence of water stress, and suggests that rising CO2 may not provide the full dividend to North American maize production anticipated in projections of future global food supply.
Herbivores and nutrients control grassland plant diversity via light limitation
Testing the hypothesis that herbaceous plant species losses caused by eutrophication may be offset by increased light availability due to herbivory demonstrates that nutrients and herbivores can serve as counteracting forces to control local plant diversity through light limitation, independent of site productivity, soil nitrogen, herbivore type and climate.
Genomic basis for stimulated respiration by plants growing under elevated carbon dioxide
- A. Leakey, Fangxiu Xu, K. Gillespie, J. McGrath, E. Ainsworth, D. Ort
- Environmental ScienceProceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
- 3 March 2009
Great respiratory quotient and leaf carbohydrate content at elevated [CO2] indicate that stimulated respiration was supported by the additional carbohydrate available from enhanced photosynthesis at elevated [*CO2], which could facilitate greater yields through enhanced photoassimilate export to sink tissues.
FACE-ing the facts: inconsistencies and interdependence among field, chamber and modeling studies of elevated [CO2] impacts on crop yield and food supply.
Global food insecurity. Treatment of major food crops with elevated carbon dioxide or ozone under large-scale fully open-air conditions suggests recent models may have overestimated future yields
- S. Long, E. Ainsworth, A. Leakey, P. Morgan
- Environmental Science, MedicinePhilosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B…
- 29 November 2005
Findings suggest that current projections of global food security are overoptimistic, as the fertilization effect of CO2 is less than that used in many models, while rising ozone will cause large yield losses in the Northern Hemisphere.
Arabidopsis transcript and metabolite profiles: ecotype-specific responses to open-air elevated [CO2].
To different degrees, both ecotypes perceived elevated [CO(2)] as a metabolic perturbation that necessitated increased functions consuming or storing photoassimilate, with Cvi-0 emerging as more capable of acclimating.
Rising atmospheric carbon dioxide concentration and the future of C4 crops for food and fuel
- A. Leakey
- Environmental ScienceProceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological…
- 7 July 2009
Additional experiments are needed to evaluate the extent to which amelioration of drought stress by elevated [CO2] will improve C4 crop yields for food and fuel over the range of C 4 crop growing conditions and genotypes.