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Calculation of radiative fluxes from the surface to top of atmosphere based on ISCCP and other global data sets: Refinements of the radiative transfer model and the input data
[1] We continue reconstructing Earth’s radiation budget from global observations in as much detail as possible to allow diagnosis of the effects of cloud (and surface and other atmosphericExpand
Scattering, Absorption, and Emission of Light by Small Particles
Preface Acknowledgements Part I. Basic Theory of Electromagnetic Scattering, Absorption, and Emission: 1. Polarization characteristics of electromagnetic radiation 2. Scattering, absorption, andExpand
A parameterization for the absorption of solar radiation in the earth's atmosphere
Abstract A method is described for rapidly computing the amount of solar energy absorbed at the earth's surface and in the atmosphere as a function of altitude. The method is a parametric treatment,Expand
Near-Global Survey of Effective Droplet Radii in Liquid Water Clouds Using ISCCP Data.
Abstract A global survey of cloud particle size variations can provide crucial constraints on how cloud processes determine cloud liquid water contents and their variation with temperature, andExpand
Efficient Three-Dimensional Global Models for Climate Studies: Models I and II
Abstract A global atmospheric model is developed with a computational efficiency which allows long-range climate experiments. The model solves the simultaneous equations for conservation of mass,Expand
Efficacy of climate forcings
[1] We use a global climate model to compare the effectiveness of many climate forcing agents for producing climate change. We find a substantial range in the “efficacy” of different forcings, whereExpand
Modeling of particle size distribution and its influence on the radiative properties of mineral dust aerosol
The radiative parameters of mineral aerosols are strongly dependent on particle size. Therefore explicit modeling of particle size distribution is needed to calculate the radiative effects and theExpand
Earth's Energy Imbalance: Confirmation and Implications
It is calculated that Earth is now absorbing 0.85 ± 0.15 watts per square meter more energy from the Sun than it is emitting to space, confirmed by precise measurements of increasing ocean heat content over the past 10 years. Expand
A description of the correlated k distribution method for modeling nongray gaseous absorption, thermal emission, and multiple scattering in vertically inhomogeneous atmospheres
We describe a radiative transfer method for treating nongray gaseous absorption and thermal emission in vertically inhomogeneous multiple scattering atmospheres. We derive probability densityExpand
Global warming in the twenty-first century: an alternative scenario.
Assessment of ongoing and future climate change requires composition-specific long-term global monitoring of aerosol properties, and a reduction of non-CO(2) GHGs could lead to a decline in the rate of global warming, reducing the danger of dramatic climate change. Expand