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Nod2 Is a General Sensor of Peptidoglycan through Muramyl Dipeptide (MDP) Detection*
It is shown here that Nod2 is a general sensor of peptidoglycan through the recognition of muramyl dipeptide (MDP), the minimal bioactive peptIDoglycan motif common to all bacteria. Expand
Nod1 Detects a Unique Muropeptide from Gram-Negative Bacterial Peptidoglycan
It is shown that human Nod1 specifically detects a unique diaminopimelate-containing N-acetylglucosamine–N-acetelmuramic acid tripeptide motif found in Gram-negative bacterial peptidoglycan, resulting in activation of the transcription factor NF-κB pathway. Expand
Nod1 responds to peptidoglycan delivered by the Helicobacter pylori cag pathogenicity island
It is proposed that sensing of H. pylori by Nod1 represents a model for host recognition of noninvasive pathogens as well as an intracellular pathogen-recognition molecule with specificity for Gram-negative peptidoglycan. Expand
The protein–protein interaction map of Helicobacter pylori
A large-scale protein–protein interaction map of the human gastric pathogen Helicobacter pylori is built and the assignment of unannotated proteins to biological pathways is permitted. Expand
Characterization of the roles of NikR, a nickel‐responsive pleiotropic autoregulator of Helicobacter pylori
H. pylori NikR appears to be a global regulator of the metabolism of some divalent cations within a highly complex regulated network, which provides energy for ferric iron uptake. Expand
Shuttle cloning and nucleotide sequences of Helicobacter pylori genes responsible for urease activity
The detection of urease activity from genes cloned from H. pylori was made possible by use of a shuttle cosmid vector, allowing replication and movement of cloned DNA sequences in either Escherichia coli or Campylobacter jejuni. Expand
Responsiveness to acidity via metal ion regulators mediates virulence in the gastric pathogen Helicobacter pylori
It is found that acidity is a signal modulating the expression of several virulence factors, and regulation of genes related to metal ion homeostasis suggests protective mechanisms involving diminished transport and enhanced storage in H. pylori. Expand
Cytotoxic necrotizing factor type 2 produced by virulent Escherichia coli modifies the small GTP-binding proteins Rho involved in assembly of actin stress fibers.
It is proposed that Rho proteins are the targets of CNF2 in mammalian cells as well as the formation of stress fibers in eukaryotic cells with a Rho-specific ADP-ribosyltransferase. Expand
Essential role of Helicobacter pyloriγ‐glutamyltranspeptidase for the colonization of the gastric mucosa of mice
Results demonstrate that H. pylori GGT activity has an essential role for the establishment of the infection in the mouse model, demonstrating for the first time a physiological role for a bacterial GGT enzyme. Expand
A revised annotation and comparative analysis of Helicobacter pylori genomes.
Huge amounts of genomic information are currently being generated. Therefore, biologists require structured, exhaustive and comparative databases. The PyloriGene databaseExpand