Risks and benefits of estrogen plus progestin in healthy postmenopausal women: Principal results from the Women's Health Initiative randomized controlled trial
Overall health risks exceeded benefits from use of combined estrogen plus progestin for an average 5.2-year follow-up among healthy postmenopausal US women, and the results indicate that this regimen should not be initiated or continued for primary prevention of CHD.
Effects of conjugated equine estrogen in postmenopausal women with hysterectomy: the Women's Health Initiative randomized controlled trial.
The use of conjugated equine estrogen (CEE) increases the risk of stroke, decreases therisk of hip fracture, and does not affect CHD incidence in postmenopausal women with prior hysterectomy over an average of 6.8 years, indicating no overall benefit.
Effect of alendronate on risk of fracture in women with low bone density but without vertebral fractures: results from the Fracture Intervention Trial.
In women with low BMD but without vertebral fractures, 4 years of alendronate safely increased BMD and decreased the risk of first vertebral deformity.
Walking compared with vigorous exercise for the prevention of cardiovascular events in women.
It is indicated that both walking and vigorous exercise are associated with substantial reductions in the incidence of cardiovascular events among postmenopausal women, irrespective of race or ethnic group, age, and body-mass index.
Frailty: Emergence and Consequences in Women Aged 65 and Older in the Women's Health Initiative Observational Study
- N. Fugate Woods, A. LaCroix, A. Newman
- MedicineJournal of The American Geriatrics Society
- 1 August 2005
This work defines frailty using simple indicators and investigates the predictive validity of this frailty classification for death, hospitalization, hip fracture, and activity of daily living disability.
Calcium plus vitamin D supplementation and the risk of fractures.
Among healthy postmenopausal women, calcium with vitamin D supplementation resulted in a small but significant improvement in hip bone density, did not significantly reduce hip fracture, and increased the risk of kidney stones.
Genome-wide meta-analysis identifies 56 bone mineral density loci and reveals 14 loci associated with risk of fracture
Light is shed on the genetic architecture and pathophysiological mechanisms underlying BMD variation and fracture susceptibility and within the RANK-RANKL-OPG, mesenchymal stem cell differentiation, endochondral ossification and Wnt signaling pathways.
Postmenopausal hormone therapy and risk of cardiovascular disease by age and years since menopause.
Whether the effects of hormone therapy on risk of cardiovascular disease vary by age or years since menopause began is explored to explore and women who initiated hormone therapy closer toMenopause tended to have reduced CHD risk compared with the increase inCHD risk among women more distant from menopausal symptoms.
Calcium plus vitamin D supplementation and the risk of colorectal cancer.
Daily supplementation of calcium with vitamin D for seven years had no effect on the incidence of colorectal cancer among postmenopausal women, and the long latency associated with the development of colorescopy cancer, along with the seven-year duration of the trial, may have contributed to this null finding.
Menopausal hormone therapy and health outcomes during the intervention and extended poststopping phases of the Women's Health Initiative randomized trials.
Most risks and benefits dissipated postintervention, although some elevation in breast cancer risk persisted during cumulative follow-up and the 2 WHI hormone therapy trials do not support use of this therapy.