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CpG motifs in bacterial DNA and their immune effects.
- A. Krieg
- BiologyAnnual review of immunology
Oligodeoxynucleotides containing CpG ODN enhance the development of acquired immune responses for prophylactic and therapeutic vaccination and protect against lethal challenge with a wide variety of pathogens.
CpG motifs in bacterial DNA trigger direct B-cell activation
The potent immune activation by CpG oligon nucleotides has impli-cations for the design and interpretation of studies using 'antisense' oligonucleotides and points to possible new applications as adjuvants.
Toll-like receptor expression reveals CpG DNA as a unique microbial stimulus for plasmacytoid dendritic cells which synergizes with CD40 ligand to induce high amounts of IL-12.
Human TLR7 or TLR8 independently confer responsiveness to the antiviral compound R-848
Therapeutic potential of Toll-like receptor 9 activation
- A. Krieg
- Biology, MedicineNature Reviews Drug Discovery
- 1 June 2006
An overview of the preclinical data and early human clinical trial results using synthetic oligodeoxynucleotides (ODN) as TLR9 agonists to improve vaccines and treat cancer, infectious disease and allergy/asthma is provided.
CpG motifs present in bacteria DNA rapidly induce lymphocytes to secrete interleukin 6, interleukin 12, and interferon gamma.
- D. Klinman, A. Yi, S. Beaucage, J. Conover, A. Krieg
- Biology, MedicineProceedings of the National Academy of Sciences…
- 2 April 1996
Stimulatory CpG DNA motifs induced B, T, and natural killer cells to secrete cytokine more effectively than did lipopolysaccharide, suggesting immune recognition of bacterial DNA may contribute to the cytokine, as well as the antibody production characteristic of an innate inflammatory response.
Characterization of three CpG oligodeoxynucleotide classes with distinct immunostimulatory activities
C‐ class ODN may represent new therapeutic drugs that combine the effects of A‐ and B‐Class ODN for broad applications in infectious disease or cancer therapy, and in vivo studies demonstrate that C‐ Class ODN are very potent Th1adjuvants.
Identification of CpG oligonucleotide sequences with high induction of IFN-alpha/beta in plasmacytoid dendritic cells.
It is demonstrated that particular CpG ODN sequences exist which, due to high IFN-alpha/beta induction in PDC, induce a set of immune responses typical for viral infection.
Mechanism and Function of a Newly Identified CpG DNA Motif in Human Primary B Cells1
The structure of a highly active human CpG motif is defined and its molecular mechanism of action in primary human B cells is characterized.
CpG Oligodeoxynucleotides Act as Adjuvants that Switch on T Helper 1 (Th1) Immunity
- R. Chu, O. Targoni, A. Krieg, P. Lehmann, C. Harding
- BiologyThe Journal of experimental medicine
- 17 November 1997
CpG ODN provide a signal to switch on Th1-dominated responses to coadministered antigen and are potential adjuvants for human vaccines to elicit protective Th1 immunity.