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Leptin enters the brain by a saturable system independent of insulin
Results show that leptin is transported intact from blood to brain by a saturable system and inhibited the influx of 125I-leptin in a dose-dependent manner whereas unlabeled tyrosine and insulin, which have saturable transport systems, were without effect. Expand
Transport of brain-derived neurotrophic factor across the blood–brain barrier
It is concluded that intact BDNF in the peripheral circulation crosses the blood-brain barrier by a high-capacity, saturable transport system. Expand
A potent and selective endogenous agonist for the µ-opiate receptor
Peptides have been identified in mammalian brain that are considered to be endogenous agonists for the δ (enkephalins) and κ (dynorphins) opiate receptors, but none has been found to have anyExpand
Murine tumor necrosis factor alpha is transported from blood to brain in the mouse
It is shown that murine tumor necrosis factor alpha labeled with 125I (I-mTNF alpha) crosses the blood-brain barrier (BBB) after i.v. injection, suggesting that TNF alpha is sequestered by the brain. Expand
A potent and selective endogenous agonist for the mu-opiate receptor.
The discovery and isolation from brain of a peptide, endomorphin-1 (Tyr-Pro-Trp-Phe-NH2), which has the highest specificity and affinity for the mu receptor of any endogenous substance so far described and they may be natural ligands for this receptor. Expand
Passage of cytokines across the blood-brain barrier.
Evidence shows that passage of cytokines across the blood-brain barrier occurs, providing a route by which blood-borne cytokines could potentially affect brain function. Expand
Entry of exendin-4 into brain is rapid but may be limited at high doses
The results indicate that exendin-4 is well conformed for exerting central effects involved in the control of obesity. Expand
Penetration of interleukin-6 across the murine blood-brain barrier
The results suggest that blood-borne IL-6 can reach sites behind the BBB, but that susceptibility to enzymatic degradation may limit contact time within the CNS. Expand
Differential distribution of endomorphin 1- and endomorphin 2-like immunoreactivities in the CNS of the rodent.
The neuroanatomical results suggest that endomorphins participate in modulating nociceptive and autonomic nervous system processes and responsiveness to stress. Expand
Human interleukin (IL) 1 alpha, murine IL-1 alpha and murine IL-1 beta are transported from blood to brain in the mouse by a shared saturable mechanism.
It is shown thatRadioiodinated murine IL-1 beta and especially murineIL-1 alpha are even more rapidly transported into the brain of the mouse than is radioiodinated human IL- 1 alpha after i.v. injection, showing that there are not three separate transport systems, but that they either share transport systems with overlapping affinities or share a single system. Expand