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Opportunities to Optimize Tacrolimus Therapy in Solid Organ Transplantation: Report of the European Consensus Conference
TLDR
The importance of obtaining multicenter prospective trials to assess the efficacy of alternative strategies to TAC trough concentrations is emphasized, and single time points, limited sampling strategies, and area under concentration-time curve have all been considered to determine the most appropriate sampling procedure that correlates with efficacy. Expand
The Influence of Pharmacogenetics on the Time to Achieve Target Tacrolimus Concentrations after Kidney Transplantation
TLDR
An initial dosing regimen for tacrolimus based on knowledge of the CYP3AP1 genotype and subsequently guided by concentration measurements has the potential to increase the proportion of patients achieving target blood concentrations early after transplantation. Expand
Acute toxicity associated with the recreational use of the ketamine derivative methoxetamine
TLDR
These three analytically confirmed cases demonstrate that acute methoxetamine-related toxicity is associated with both “dissociative” and “sympathomimetic” clinical features, and is useful to clinical pharmacologists, not only in managing individuals with acute methxetamine toxicity but also in advising the appropriate legislative authorities on the risk of acute harm related to methoxETamine use. Expand
Tacrolimus pharmacogenetics: polymorphisms associated with expression of cytochrome p4503A5 and p-glycoprotein correlate with dose requirement
TLDR
The CYP3AP1 genotype is a major factor in determining the dose requirement for tacrolimus, and genotyping may be of value in planning patient-specific drug dosing. Expand
Therapeutic drug monitoring of immunosuppressant drugs in clinical practice.
TLDR
Current data on TDM of the following immunosuppressant drugs used in organ transplantation are summarized, and recent findings indicate that monitoring of drug levels 2 hours after dosing is a more sensitive predictor of outcome than trough (C0) monitoring. Expand
Influence of donor C3 allotype on late renal-transplantation outcome.
TLDR
Expression of C3 alleles by donor renal cells appears to have a differential effect on late renal-graft outcome, and among white C3S/S recipients, receipt of a C3F/F or C3f/S donor kidney, rather than a C2S/s donor kidneys, is associated with a significantly better long-term outcome. Expand
Therapeutic drug monitoring of immunosuppressant drugs.
TLDR
The purpose of this review is to examine the current strategies in use for the therapeutic drug monitoring of immunosuppressant drugs and to discuss some of the factors that impinge on the monitoring of these drugs. Expand
Improved clinical outcomes for liver transplant recipients using cyclosporine monitoring based on 2-hr post-dose levels (C2)1
TLDR
Using C2 monitoring, the overall incidence of acute cellular rejection was lower compared with the C0 group, and the histological severity of acute rejections was shown to be significantly milder for the C2 group, indicative of good long-term prognosis. Expand
Limited Sampling Strategies for Estimating Cyclosporin Area Under the Concentration–Time Curve: Review of Current Algorithms
TLDR
This article reviews the current literature on estimating cyclosporin AUC using limited sampling strategy (LSS) and suggests that equations defined on one transplant type may be applicable to other transplant types, to both adults and children, and to early or late after transplantation. Expand
Substandard drugs: a potential crisis for public health
TLDR
Different aspects of substandard drug formulation that can occur (for example, pharmacological variability between drug batches or between generic and originator drugs, incorrect drug quantity and presence of impurities) are reviewed. Expand
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