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Fatty acid elongases in mammals: their regulation and roles in metabolism.
TLDR
The regulation of the mammalian fatty acid elongases and their potential role in lipid metabolism are discussed and both the biochemical functions of the proteins, as well as their role in a more physiological context are considered. Expand
Mice lacking mitochondrial uncoupling protein are cold-sensitive but not obese
TLDR
The role of UCP in the regulation of body mass is determined by targeted inactivation of the gene encoding it by finding that UCP-deficient mice consume less oxygen after treatment with a β3-adrenergic-receptor agonist and are sensitive to cold, indicating that their thermo-regulation is defective. Expand
The key roles of elongases and desaturases in mammalian fatty acid metabolism: Insights from transgenic mice.
TLDR
The first part of this review summarizes the current knowledge concerning elongases and desaturases and focuses on the insights gained from studies with these mice, as well as from investigations on cell cultures. Expand
Only UCP1 can mediate adaptive nonshivering thermogenesis in the cold
TLDR
Not even during prolonged and enhanced demand for extra heat production was any endogenous hormone or neurotransmitter able to recruit any UCP1‐independent adaptive nonshivering thermogenic process in muscle or in any other organ, and no proteins other than U CP1—not even UCP2 or UCP3—therefore have the ability to mediate adaptive nonsHivering thermogenesis in the cold. Expand
UCP1: the only protein able to mediate adaptive non-shivering thermogenesis and metabolic inefficiency.
TLDR
It is concluded that UCP1 is unique amongst the uncoupling proteins and is the only protein able to mediate adaptive non-shivering thermogenesis and the ensuing metabolic inefficiency. Expand
Role of a New Mammalian Gene Family in the Biosynthesis of Very Long Chain Fatty Acids and Sphingolipids
TLDR
It is shown that Ssc1 mRNA levels were markedly decreased in the brains of myelin-deficient mouse mutants known to have very low fatty acid chain elongation activity, and the dramatic induction of Cig30 expression during brown fat recruitment coincided with elevated elongated activity. Expand
Thermogenic Responses in Brown Fat Cells Are Fully UCP1-dependent
TLDR
It is concluded that no other adrenergically induced thermogenic mechanism exists in brown adipocytes except that mediated by UCP1 and that entopic expression of UCP2 and UCP3 does not lead to overt innate uncoupling, and it is suggested that fatty acids are transformed to an intracellular physiological activator of U CP1. Expand
Native UCP1 Displays Simple Competitive Kinetics between the Regulators Purine Nucleotides and Fatty Acids*
TLDR
It is concluded that, when examined in its native environment, UCP1 functions as a proton (equivalent) carrier in the absence of exogenous or endogenous fatty acids. Expand
Differential regulation of fatty acid elongation enzymes in brown adipocytes implies a unique role for Elovl3 during increased fatty acid oxidation.
TLDR
Different transcriptional regulation and concomitantly different functional roles for fatty acid elongases in lipid metabolism of brown adipocytes are demonstrated, which reflects the metabolic status of the cells. Expand
Proresolving lipid mediators resolvin D1, resolvin D2, and maresin 1 are critical in modulating T cell responses
TLDR
D-series resolvins and maresin 1 modulate adaptive immune responses in human peripheral blood lymphocytes and reduce cytokine production by activated CD8+ T cells and CD4+ T helper 1 (TH1) and TH17 cells but do not modulate T cell inhibitory receptors or abrogate their capacity to proliferate. Expand
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