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Climate change impacts and adaptation in cities: a review of the literature
Many of the decisions relating to future urban development require information on climate change risks to cities This review of the academic and “grey” literature provides an overview assessment of
Physical and economic consequences of climate change in Europe
This article quantifies the potential consequences of climate change in Europe in four market impact categories (agriculture, river floods, coastal areas, and tourism) and one nonmarket impact (human health) and finds that there are large variations across European regions.
The validity of food miles as an indicator of sustainable development - final report
Over the last fifty years, there has been a large increase in the distance food travels from the farm to the consumer, known as "food miles". DEFRA, UK commissioned a study to assess whether a
Transaction costs of the Kyoto Mechanisms
Transaction costs will reduce the attractiveness of the Kyoto Mechanisms compared to domestic abatement options. Especially the project-based mechanisms Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) and Joint
Economic valuation of air pollution mortality: A 9-country contingent valuation survey of value of a life year (VOLY)
This paper provides a key element for the calculation of the damage costs of air pollution, namely the valuation of mortality, important because premature mortality makes by far the largest
Willingness to Pay to Reduce Mortality Risks: Evidence from a Three-Country Contingent Valuation Study
Valuing a change in the risk of death is a key input into the calculation of the benefits of environmental policies that save lives. Typically such risks are monetized using the Value of a
BRAFO tiered approach for Benefit-Risk Assessment of Foods.
This guidance document describes a tiered ('stepwise') approach for performing a risk and benefit assessment of foods that consists of four tiers and may be sufficient to show a clear difference between the health impacts of the two scenarios.
Impacts of climate change in human health in Europe. PESETA-Human health study
The most important health effects from future climate change are projected to include: increases in summer heat related mortality (deaths) and morbidity (illness); decreases in winter cold related