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Guidelines for Reporting Reliability and Agreement Studies (GRRAS) were proposed.
OBJECTIVE Results of reliability and agreement studies are intended to provide information about the amount of error inherent in any diagnosis, score, or measurement. The level of reliability andExpand
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ROBINS-I: a tool for assessing risk of bias in non-randomised studies of interventions
Non-randomised studies of the effects of interventions are critical to many areas of healthcare evaluation, but their results may be biased. It is therefore important to understand and appraise theirExpand
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SPIRIT 2013 explanation and elaboration: guidance for protocols of clinical trials
High quality protocols facilitate proper conduct, reporting, and external review of clinical trials. However, the completeness of trial protocols is often inadequate. To help improve the content andExpand
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SPIRIT 2013 statement: defining standard protocol items for clinical trials.
The protocol of a clinical trial serves as the foundation for study planning, conduct, reporting, and appraisal. However, trial protocols and existing protocol guidelines vary greatly in content andExpand
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Is the placebo powerless? An analysis of clinical trials comparing placebo with no treatment.
BACKGROUND Placebo treatments have been reported to help patients with many diseases, but the quality of the evidence supporting this finding has not been rigorously evaluated. METHODS We conductedExpand
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Empirical evidence for selective reporting of outcomes in randomized trials: comparison of protocols to published articles.
CONTEXT Selective reporting of outcomes within published studies based on the nature or direction of their results has been widely suspected, but direct evidence of such bias is currently limited toExpand
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Placebo interventions for all clinical conditions.
BACKGROUND Placebo interventions are often claimed to improve patient-reported and observer-reported outcomes, but this belief is not based on evidence from randomised trials that compare placeboExpand
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SPIRIT 2013 Statement: defining standard protocol items for clinical trials.
The protocol of a clinical trial serves as the foundation for study planning, conduct, reporting, and appraisal. However, trial protocols and existing protocol guidelines vary greatly in content andExpand
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  • Open Access
Is the placebo powerless? An analysis of clinical trials comparing placebo with no treatment.
Background Placebo treatments have been reported to help patients with many diseases, but the quality of the evidence supporting this finding has not been rigorously evaluated. Methods We conducted aExpand
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