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ACTN3 genotype is associated with human elite athletic performance.
TLDR
Associations between ACTN3 genotype and athletic performance suggest that the presence of alpha-actinin-3 has a beneficial effect on the function of skeletal muscle in generating forceful contractions at high velocity, and provides an evolutionary advantage because of increased sprint performance.
Live high:train low increases muscle buffer capacity and submaximal cycling efficiency.
TLDR
Reduced VO2 during normoxic exercise after LHTL suggests that improved exercise efficiency is a fundamental adaptation to L HTL, and is the first study to show that hypoxic exposure, per se, increases muscle buffer capacity.
Improved running economy in elite runners after 20 days of simulated moderate-altitude exposure.
TLDR
It is concluded that 20 days of LHTL at simulated altitude improved the RE of elite distance runners, and the improved RE could not be explained by a decrease in Ve or by preferential use of carbohydrate as a metabolic substrate, nor was it related to any change in Hb(mass.
Intermittent normobaric hypoxia does not alter performance or erythropoietic markers in highly trained distance runners.
TLDR
Four weeks of a 5:5-min normobaric hypoxia exposure at rest for 70 min, 5 days/wk, is not a sufficient stimulus to elicit improved performance or change the normal level of erythropoiesis in highly trained distance runners.
Second-generation blood tests to detect erythropoietin abuse by athletes.
TLDR
The increased stability of the new blood parameters facilitates transport of samples to central laboratories, and the heightened sensitivity of thenew models makes them better than existing models for federations wishing to screen samples for urine testing and to identify and target suspect athletes for out-of-competition testing.
Footstrike is the major cause of hemolysis during running.
TLDR
The present data indicate that, whereas general circulatory trauma to the red blood cells associated with 1 h of exercise at 75% maximal oxygen uptake may result in some exercise-induced hemolysis, footstrike is the major contributor to hemolyses during running.
Reduced performance of male and female athletes at 580 m altitude
TLDR
It was concluded that relative, rather than absolute, O2peak may be a more appropriate predictor of exercise-induced hypoxaemia.
Glycerol hyperhydration improves cycle time trial performance in hot humid conditions
TLDR
Data indicate that the glycerol-induced performance increase did not result from plasma volume expansion and subsequently lower core temperature or lower cardiac frequencies at a given power output as previously proposed, and subjects maintained a higher power output without increased perception of effort or thermal strain.
Physiological characteristics of successful mountain bikers and professional road cyclists
TLDR
It is shown that high power-to-weight characteristics are important for success in mountain biking and the mountain bikers possessed similar anthropometric and physiological characteristics to previously studied road cycling uphill specialists.
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