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Measuring individual differences in implicit cognition: the implicit association test.
An implicit association test (IAT) measures differential association of 2 target concepts with an attribute. The 2 concepts appear in a 2-choice task (2-choice task (e.g., flower vs. insect names),Expand
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Understanding and using the implicit association test: I. An improved scoring algorithm.
In reporting Implicit Association Test (IAT) results, researchers have most often used scoring conventions described in the first publication of the IAT (A.G. Greenwald, D.E. McGhee, & J.L.K.Expand
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Implicit social cognition: attitudes, self-esteem, and stereotypes.
Social behavior is ordinarily treated as being under conscious (if not always thoughtful) control. However, considerable evidence now supports the view that social behavior often operates in anExpand
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Using the implicit association test to measure self-esteem and self-concept.
Experiment 1 used the Implicit Association Test (IAT; A. G. Greenwald, D. E. McGhee, & J. L. K. Schwartz, 1998) to measure self-esteem by assessing automatic associations of self with positive orExpand
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Understanding and using the Implicit Association Test: III. Meta-analysis of predictive validity.
This review of 122 research reports (184 independent samples, 14,900 subjects) found average r = .274 for prediction of behavioral, judgment, and physiological measures by Implicit Association TestExpand
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A unified theory of implicit attitudes, stereotypes, self-esteem, and self-concept.
This theoretical integration of social psychology's main cognitive and affective constructs was shaped by 3 influences: (a) recent widespread interest in automatic and implicit cognition, (b)Expand
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The Implicit Association Test at Age 7: A Methodological and Conceptual Review
A mong earthly organisms, humans have a unique propensity to introspect or look inward into the contents of their own minds, and to share those observations with others. With the ability toExpand
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Harvesting implicit group attitudes and beliefs from a demonstration web site
Respondents at an Internet site completed over 600,000 tasks between October 1998 and April 2000 measuring attitudes toward and stereotypes of social groups. Their responses demonstrated, on average,Expand
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The totalitarian ego: Fabrication and revision of personal history.
This article argues that (a) ego, or self, is an organization of knowledge, (b) ego is characterized by cognitive biases strikingly analogous to totalitarian information-control strategies, and (c)Expand
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The Brief Implicit Association Test.
The Brief Implicit Association Test (BIAT) consists of two blocks of trials with the same four categories and stimulus-response mappings as the standard IAT, but with 1/3 the number of trials. UnlikeExpand
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