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Defensive production of formic acid (80%) by a carabid beetle (Galerita lecontei).
TLDR
The carabid beetle Galerita lecontei has a pair of abdominal defensive glands that secrete a mixture of formic acid, acetic acid, and lipophilic components (long-chain hydrocarbons and esters) which it aims accurately toward parts of the body subjected to assault.
Sexually transmitted chemical defense in a moth (Utetheisa ornatrix).
TLDR
It is shown that the female herself derives protection from the gift of pyrrolizidine alkaloids, and predicts that other instances will be found of female insects being rendered invulnerable by receipt of sexually transmitted chemicals.
Fate of an alkaloidal nuptial gift in the moth Utetheisa ornatrix: systemic allocation for defense of self by the receiving female.
TLDR
It is shown by chemical analyses that the female herself is the first beneficiary of the alkaloid she receives from the male at mating, and this result is in line with the earlier finding that the male's alkaloidal gift can itself suffice to render a female fully protected against spiders from the moment she uncouples from themale.
Chemical defense: bestowal of a nuptial alkaloidal garment by a male moth on its mate.
TLDR
Protective nuptial festooning of a female by its mate, such as is practiced by C. myrodora, appears to be without parallel among insects.
N-methylquinolinium 2-carboxylate, a defensive betaine from Photuris versicolor fireflies.
From whole body extracts of Photuris versicolor fireflies, the defensive betaine N-methylquinolinium 2-carboxylate (1) was isolated and characterized on the basis of spectroscopic data and comparison
Antiinsectan Activity of Epilachnene, a Defensive Alkaloid from Pupae of Mexican Bean Beetles (Epilachna varivestis)
TLDR
Both the R enantiomer of epilachnene, and the natural configuration of the compound, proved deterrent in a feeding bioassay with a predaceous coccinellid beetle (Harmonia axyridis) and in a topical irritancy test with a cockroach.
Diel Periodicity of 3-Methyl-2-Butenyl Butyrate Emissions by Bronze Bug Males Is Suppressed in the Presence of Females
TLDR
These findings point to an intraspecific function, possibly one related to male–male competition, in T. peregrinus males, an exotic emerging pest in Eucalyptus commercial forests in South America, Africa, and southern Europe.
Miriamin, a defensive diterpene from the eggs of a land slug (Arion sp.).
The eggs of the land slug Arion sp. contain a diterpene, miriamin, characterized as a polyoxygenated geranylgeraniol derivative. In bioassays with a coccinellid beetle, Harmonia axyridis, miriamin
Attraction of Male Nymphs to Adult Male Volatiles in the Bronze Bug Thaumastocoris peregrinus Carpintero & Dellape (Heteroptera: Thaumastocoridae)
TLDR
Olfactometer bioassays show that late-instar male nymphs are also attracted to synthetic 3-methyl-2-butenyl butyrate and to adult male volatile extracts, which contain this compound as the major component.
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