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Earlier Development of the Accumbens Relative to Orbitofrontal Cortex Might Underlie Risk-Taking Behavior in Adolescents
It is suggested that maturing subcortical systems become disproportionately activated relative to later maturing top–down control systems, biasing the adolescent's action toward immediate over long-term gains. Expand
The adolescent brain.
A biologically plausible conceptualization of the neural mechanisms underlying nonlinear changes in behavior observed during adolescence is provided, as a heightened responsiveness to incentives while impulse control is still relatively immature during this period. Expand
Biological Substrates of Emotional Reactivity and Regulation in Adolescence During an Emotional Go-Nogo Task
The findings suggest that exaggerated emotional reactivity during adolescence might increase the need for top-down control and put individuals with less control at greater risk for poor outcomes. Expand
Prolonged institutional rearing is associated with atypically large amygdala volume and difficulties in emotion regulation.
The findings are consistent with previous reports describing negative effects of prolonged orphanage care on emotional behavior and with animal models that show long-term changes in the amygdala and emotional behavior following early postnatal stress. Expand
Adolescent Development of the Reward System
  • A. Galván
  • Psychology, Medicine
  • Front. Hum. Neurosci.
  • 3 September 2009
The evidence to support the hypothesis that during adolescence the striatum is hyper-responsive to rewards is described, as well as speculate on the disparate fMRI findings and conclude with future areas of inquiry to this fascinating question. Expand
A shift from diffuse to focal cortical activity with development.
Functional MRI in children is used to test directly for shifts in cortical activity during performance of a cognitive control task, in a combined longitudinal and cross-sectional study. Expand
Risk-taking and the adolescent brain: who is at risk?
It is suggested that during adolescence, some individuals may be especially prone to engage in risky behaviors due to developmental changes in concert with variability in a given individual's predisposition to engaging in risky behavior, rather than to simple changes in impulsivity. Expand
Pathophysiology of Parkinsonism
The evidence that implicates electrophysiologic changes (including altered discharge rates, increased incidence of burst firing, interneuronal synchrony, oscillatory activity, and altered sensorimotor processing) in basal ganglia, thalamus, and cortex, in parkinsonism is discussed. Expand
Engagement of large-scale networks is related to individual differences in inhibitory control
Results clearly show a relationship between individual differences in stopping ability in specific activated networks, including regions known to be critical for the behavior, and highlight the usefulness of using dimensionality reduction to increase the power to detect brain/behavior correlations in individual differences research. Expand
Changes in cerebral functional organization during cognitive development
It has been just under a decade since contemporary neuroimaging tools, such as functional magnetic resonance imaging, were first applied to developmental questions and studies show that brain regions that support motor and sensory function mature earliest, whereas higher-order association areas,such as the prefrontal cortex, which integrate these functions, mature later. Expand