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RORγt drives production of the cytokine GM-CSF in helper T cells, which is essential for the effector phase of autoimmune neuroinflammation
It is reported that interleukin 23 and the transcription factor RORγt drove expression of the cytokine GM-CSF in helper T cells, whereas IL-12, interferon-γ (IFN-γ) and IL-27 acted as negative regulators. Expand
Melanoma Cell Expression of Fas(Apo-1/CD95) Ligand: Implications for Tumor Immune Escape
In vivo, injection of FasL+ mouse melanoma cells in mice led to rapid tumor formation and tumorigenesis was delayed in Fas-deficient lpr mutant mice in which immune effector cells cannot be killed by FasL. Expand
Conversion of Membrane-bound Fas(CD95) Ligand to Its Soluble Form Is Associated with Downregulation of Its Proapoptotic Activity and Loss of Liver Toxicity
The results indicate that the mere trimerization of the Fas and TRAIL receptors may not be sufficient to trigger death signals, and the observation that sFasL is less cytotoxic than membrane-bound FasL may explain why in certain types of cancer, systemic tissue damage is not detected, even though the levels of circulating sFAsL are high. Expand
IL‐6‐deficient mice resist myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein‐induced autoimmune encephalomyelitis
It is found that mice with a homologous disruption of the gene encoding IL‐6 are found to be resistant to MOG‐induced EAE as evidenced by absence of clinical symptoms, minimal infiltration of CD3+ T cells and monocytes into the CNS and lack of demyelination. Expand
TNF-alpha suppresses the expression of clock genes by interfering with E-box-mediated transcription.
It is suggested that the increase of TNF-alpha and IL-1beta, as seen in infectious and autoimmune diseases, impairs clock gene functions and causes fatigue. Expand
[Interleukin 1].
Interleukin-1 (IL-1) is secreted by macrophages, macrophage-like cells (e.g. Langerhans cells) and by astrocytes, keratinocytes, fibroblasts or natural killer cells. IL-1 is directly involved in theExpand
Increased Number of Islet-Associated Macrophages in Type 2 Diabetes
Investigating the notion that increased numbers of macrophages exist in the islets of type 2 diabetes patients and that this may be explained by a dysregulation of islet-derived inflammatory factors found this inflammatory response was found to be biologically functional. Expand
Puromycin-sensitive Aminopeptidase
Analysis of a novel mouse cDNA encoding the puromycin-sensitive aminopeptidase (PSA) and on its expression in COS cells and 3T3 fibroblasts favors the novel idea that PSA participates in proteolytic events essential for cell growth and viability. Expand
Astrocytes present myelin basic protein to encephalitogenic T-cell lines
It is shown that rat astrocytes are able to present antigen to T lymphocytes in a specific manner which is restricted by the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) and that they can in particular activate myelin basic protein (BP)-specific, encephalitogenic T-cell lines. Expand
The antidepressant rolipram suppresses cytokine production and prevents autoimmune encephalomyelitis
Rolipram, a selective type IV phosphodiesterase inhibitor, stereospecifically suppresses the production of TNF/LT and less strongly also IFN-γ in human and rat auto-reactive T cells and it is shown that rolipram is an effective treatment for EAE. Expand