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  • Influence
Clinical problem solving and diagnostic decision making: selective review of the cognitive literature
This is the fourth in a series of five articles This article reviews our current understanding of the cognitive processes involved in diagnostic reasoning in clinical medicine. It describes andExpand
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  • Open Access
Decision Making in Health and Medicine
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Diagnostic error in medicine: analysis of 583 physician-reported errors.
BACKGROUND Missed or delayed diagnoses are a common but understudied area in patient safety research. To better understand the types, causes, and prevention of such errors, we surveyed clinicians toExpand
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  • Open Access
Valuing the Future
  • G. Chapman, A. Elstein
  • Economics, Medicine
  • Medical decision making : an international…
  • 1 October 1995
Normative discounted utility theory specifies that the values of all future outcomes (for example, those related to health and money) should be discounted at a constant rate. Two experimentsExpand
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Thinking about diagnostic thinking: a 30-year perspective
  • A. Elstein
  • Medicine, Psychology
  • Advances in health sciences education : theory…
  • 11 August 2009
This paper has five objectives: (a) to review the scientific background of, and major findings reported in, Medical Problem Solving, now widely recognized as a classic in the field; (b) to compareExpand
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  • Open Access
Medical problem-solving.
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Heuristics and biases: selected errors in clinical reasoning.
  • A. Elstein
  • Medicine
  • Academic medicine : journal of the Association of…
  • 1 July 1999
Many clinical decisions are made in uncertainty. When the diagnosis is uncertain, the goal is to establish a diagnosis or to treat even if the diagnosis remains unknown. If the diagnosis is knownExpand
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  • Open Access
Critical thinking and clinical decision making in critical care nursing: a pilot study.
OBJECTIVE This pilot study examined the relationship of education level, years of critical care nursing experience, and critical thinking (CT) ability (skills and dispositions) to consistency inExpand
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