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Prevalence of Depression During Pregnancy: Systematic Review
Rates of depression, especially during the second and third trimesters of pregnancy, are substantial, and clinical and economic studies to estimate maternal and fetal consequences are needed.
Perinatal Risks of Untreated Depression during Pregnancy
The biological dysregulation caused by gestational depression has not received appropriate attention: most studies focus on the potential but unproven risks of psychotropic medication and no in-depth discussion of the role of psychotherapy is available.
Pregnancy outcome of women using atypical antipsychotic drugs: a prospective comparative study.
Results suggest that atypical antipsychotics do not appear to be associated with an increased risk for major malformations, and there were no statistically significant differences in any of the pregnancy outcomes of interest.
Pregnancy outcome following gestational exposure to venlafaxine: a multicenter prospective controlled study.
The results suggest that the use of venlafaxine during pregnancy does not increase the rates of major malformations above the baseline rate of 1%-3%.
The relationship between stress and hair cortisol in healthy pregnant women.
The findings corroborate recent primate studies with induced stress, and suggest that hair cortisol is a potential biomarker of chronic stress in pregnancy.
Smoking in pregnancy and lactation: a review of risks and cessation strategies
There is evidence that smoking in pregnancy and lactation may cause many adverse affects in the perinatal period, childhood, and up to adulthood, and a number of strategies have been developed to assist pregnant women in quitting smoking.
Reliability and validity of the 4-item perceived stress scale among pregnant women: results from the OTIS antidepressants study.
The 4-item Perceived Stress Scale is a valid and useful tool for assessing maternal stress during pregnancy and its validity in predicting maternal depression and quality of life (QoL) is confirmed.
Pregnancy Outcome After Exposure to Antidepressants and the Role of Maternal Depression: Results From the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study
This study does not suggest a strongly increased risk of malformations, preterm birth, or low birth weight following prenatal exposure to antidepressants after adjustments for level of maternal depression and various sociodemographic and lifestyle factors.
Pregnancy outcome of women exposed to bupropion during pregnancy: a prospective comparative study.
Perception of risk regarding the use of medications and other exposures during pregnancy
Women overestimate the risk of drug use and other exposures during pregnancy, and it is important for health care providers to use evidence-based information, to reduce unnecessary anxiety, and to ensure safe and appropriate treatment during pregnancy.