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Interactions Among Three Trophic Levels: Influence of Plants on Interactions Between Insect Herbivores and Natural Enemies
TLDR
It is argued that theory on insect-plant interactions cannot progress realistically without consideration of the third trophic level, and plants have many effects, direct and indirect, positive and negative, not only on herbivore but also on the enemies of herbivores. Expand
Rapid evolution of flowering time by an annual plant in response to a climate fluctuation
TLDR
Natural selection for drought escape thus appears to have caused adaptive evolution in just a few generations, and a systematic effort to collect and store propagules from suitable species would provide biologists with materials to detect and elucidate the genetic basis of further evolutionary shifts driven by climate change. Expand
Time after time: flowering phenology and biotic interactions.
TLDR
A review of the literature indicates that pollinators tend to favour peak or earlier flowering, whereas pre-dispersal seed predators tends to favour off-peak or later flowering, but effects strongly vary among study systems. Expand
Reactive Plant Tissue Sites and the Population Biology of Gall Makers
TLDR
The evolution of the plant-gall maker interaction is complicated by the fact that galls are phenotypic entities that develop under the influence of both plant and insect genotypes. Expand
THE CONSEQUENCES OF FLORAL HERBIVORY FOR POLLINATOR SERVICE TO ISOMERIS ARBOREA
TLDR
The results show that floral herbivory reduces pollinator service and thus may reduce reproductive success indirectly, as well as through the direct consumption of viable gametes. Expand
THE EFFECT OF FLORAL HERBIVORY ON MALE AND FEMALE REPRODUCTIVE SUCCESS IN ISOMERIS ARBOREA
TLDR
Although damage reduces pollen receipt, hand pollination experiments showed that neither exposed nor protected plants were pollen limited, which suggests that floral herbivores primarily affect female function through their direct destruction of gametes. Expand
Impact of ecological factors on the initial invasion of Bt transgenes into wild populations of birdseed rape (Brassica rapa)
TLDR
It is concluded that high-density patches of highly damaged wild plants are the most vulnerable to Bt-transgene invasion and should be monitored early to detect potential transgene spread. Expand
Resource Utilization Patterns in a Community of Gall-Attacking Parasitoids
TLDR
The natural history of the parasitoids attacking Asteromyia carbonifera (O.S.) (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae) was studied and a negative correlation was found between the number of hosts per gall and the percent parasitism inflicted by T. tesserus. Expand
EVOLUTIONARY RADIATION OF “STONE PLANTS” IN THE GENUS ARGYRODERMA (AIZOACEAE): UNRAVELING THE EFFECTS OF LANDSCAPE, HABITAT, AND FLOWERING TIME
TLDR
Factors involved in the diversification of Argyroderma, a genus within the most spectacular of the Cape radiations, that of the Ruschioid subfamily of the Aizoaceae, are investigated and adaptive speciation in allopatry is proposed as a likely model for the spectacular diversification in the dissected landscapes of the southern African winter rainfall deserts. Expand
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