• Publications
  • Influence
Desperate Times, Desperate Measures: The Causes of Civilian Victimization in War
  • A. Downes
  • Political Science
  • International Security
  • 26 April 2006
Despite normative and legal injunctions against targeting civilians in war, as well as doubts regarding the effectiveness of such strategies, belligerents have frequently turned their guns onExpand
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Vertical and horizontal fluxes of plutonium and americium in the western Mediterranean and the Strait of Gibraltar.
New data on the vertical distributions of plutonium and americium in the waters of the western Mediterranean and the Strait of Gibraltar are examined in terms of the processes governing theirExpand
  • 44
  • 6
The Illusion of Democratic Credibility
Abstract Do democracies make more effective coercive threats? An influential literature in international relations argues that democratic institutions allow leaders to credibly signal their resolveExpand
  • 111
  • 6
  • PDF
Targeting Civilians in War
  • 268
  • 5
Forced to Be Free?: Why Foreign-Imposed Regime Change Rarely Leads to Democratization
Is military intervention effective in spreading democracy? Existing studies disagree. Optimists point to successful cases, such as the transformation of West Germany and Japan into consolidatedExpand
  • 75
  • 5
  • PDF
Recent observations on the physico-chemical speciation of plutonium in the Irish Sea and the western Mediterranean
Abstract Data on the physico-chemical speciation of Pu in the Irish Sea and the western Mediterranean, gathered in the course of research expeditions carried out in the period 1988–1993, are reviewedExpand
  • 74
  • 4
Draining the Sea by Filling the Graves: Investigating the Effectiveness of Indiscriminate Violence as a Counterinsurgency Strategy
It is commonly believed in the literature on insurgency and counterinsurgency that to be effective in undermining civilian support for guerrillas, violence against noncombatants must be selective orExpand
  • 116
  • 4
  • PDF
The Problem with Negotiated Settlements to Ethnic Civil Wars
A burgeoning literature has emerged on the utility of negotiated settlements as a method of terminating civil wars. 1 Negotiated settlements comprise less than one quarter of all civil war endings,...
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  • 4
  • PDF
More Borders, Less Conflict? Partition as a Solution to Ethnic Civil Wars
The conventional wisdom among scholars and policymakers opposes solving ethnic conflicts by drawing new borders and creating new states. This view, however, is flawed because the process of fightingExpand
  • 21
  • 3
  • PDF
How Smart and Tough are Democracies Reassessing Theories of Democratic Victory in War
  • A. Downes
  • Political Science
  • International Security
  • 7 April 2009
Proponents of the selection effects argument claim that because democratic leaders run a higher risk of losing office than autocratic leaders if they fail to win wars, they are more careful thanExpand
  • 75
  • 2
  • PDF
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