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Sustained desensitization to bacterial Toll-like receptor ligands after resolutionof respiratory influenza infection
The World Health Organization estimates that lower respiratory tract infections (excluding tuberculosis) account for ∼35% of all deaths caused by infectious diseases. In many cases, the cause ofExpand
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An antiinflammatory role for IKKβ through the inhibition of “classical” macrophage activation
The nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) pathway plays a central role in inflammation and immunity. In response to proinflammatory cytokines and pathogen-associated molecular patterns, NF-κB activation isExpand
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Role of Toll‐like receptors in costimulating cytotoxic T cell responses
Stimulation of Toll‐like receptors (TLR) by pathogen‐derived compounds leads to activation of APC, facilitating the induction of protective immunity. This phenomenon is the basis of most adjuvantExpand
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Dendritic cells: the host Achille's heel for mucosal pathogens?
Mucosal surfaces represent the main sites of interaction with environmental microorganisms and antigens. Sentinel cells, including epithelial cells and dendritic cells (DCs), continuously sense theExpand
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Radioresistant cells expressing TLR5 control the respiratory epithelium's innate immune responses to flagellin
Bacterial products (such as endotoxins and flagellin) trigger innate immune responses through TLRs. Flagellin‐induced signalling involves TLR5 and MyD88 and, according to some reports, TLR4. WhereasExpand
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The impact of successive infections on the lung microenvironment
The effect of infection history on the immune response is ignored in most models of infectious disease and in preclinical vaccination studies. No one, however, is naïve and repeated microbialExpand
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Innate and acquired plasticity of the intestinal immune system.
The principal function of the intestines is to process food through digestion and to take up and transport the digested nutrients across the epithelium, i.e. from the lumen to the blood stream. TheExpand
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Development of an AS04-Adjuvanted HPV Vaccine with the Adjuvant System Approach
A novel human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine has been formulated with virus-like particles of the L1 protein of HPV-16 and HPV-18, and the Adjuvant System 04 (AS04). AS04 is a combination of theExpand
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Airway structural cells regulate TLR5-mediated mucosal adjuvant activity
Antigen-presenting cell (APC) activation is enhanced by vaccine adjuvants. Most vaccines are based on the assumption that adjuvant activity of Toll-like receptor (TLR) agonists depends on direct,Expand
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How the Gut Links Innate and Adaptive Immunity
Abstract: Mucosal surfaces represent the main sites in which environmental microorganisms and antigens interact with the host. Sentinel cells, including epithelial cells, lumenal macrophages, andExpand
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