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Identification and importance of brown adipose tissue in adult humans.
TLDR
Defined regions of functionally active brown adipose tissue are present in adult humans, are more frequent in women than in men, and may be quantified noninvasively with the use of (18)F-FDG PET-CT. Expand
Cellular bioenergetics as a target for obesity therapy
TLDR
This article integrates significant recent advances in identifying the factors that control the development and function of brown fat and skeletal muscle and in techniques to measure brown fat in human adults in relation to classical understandings of cellular bioenergetics to explore the potential for developing novel anti-obesity therapies that target cellular energy expenditure. Expand
Anatomical Localization, Gene Expression Profiling, and Functional Characterization of Adult Human Neck Brown Fat
TLDR
This study isolated anatomically defined neck fat from adult human volunteers and compared its gene expression, differentiation capacity and basal oxygen consumption to different mouse adipose depots, suggesting that activation of human BAT could be used as a safe treatment for obesity and metabolic dysregulation. Expand
Activation of human brown adipose tissue by a β3-adrenergic receptor agonist.
TLDR
A β3-AR agonist can stimulate human BAT thermogenesis and may be a promising treatment for metabolic disease. Expand
Brown Fat Paucity Due to Impaired BMP Signaling Induces Compensatory Browning of White Fat
TLDR
Evidence is provided for a systemically active regulatory mechanism that controls whole-body BAT activity for thermoregulation and energy homeostasis, and an important physiological cross-talk between constitutive and recruitable brown fat cells is suggested. Expand
Genetic and functional characterization of clonally derived adult human brown adipocytes
TLDR
This study isolated clonally derived adipocytes from stromal vascular fractions of adult human BAT from two individuals and globally analyzed their molecular signatures and found that KCNK3 and MTUS1 were required for beige adipocyte differentiation and thermogenic function. Expand
Prediction of preadipocyte differentiation by gene expression reveals role of insulin receptor substrates and necdin
TLDR
Using microarray analysis of brown preadipocytes that are derived from wild-type and insulin receptor substrate substrate (Irs) knockout animals that exhibit progressively impaired differentiation, 374 genes/expressed-sequence tags whose expression inPre-1 and Wnt10a correlates with the ultimate ability of the cells to differentiate are defined. Expand
Pediatric brown adipose tissue: detection, epidemiology, and differences from adults.
TLDR
BAT activity increases from childhood into adolescence, when it is detected in almost half of patients, and it correlates inversely with obesity, suggesting that BAT may play a prominent role in pediatric metabolism. Expand
Cold but not sympathomimetics activates human brown adipose tissue in vivo
TLDR
Mild cold exposure stimulates BAT energy expenditure with fewer other systemic effects, suggesting that cold activates specific sympathetic pathways and agents that mimic cold activation of BAT could provide a promising approach to treating obesity while minimizing systemic effects. Expand
IRF4 Is a Key Thermogenic Transcriptional Partner of PGC-1α
TLDR
Interferon regulatory factor 4 is identified as a dominant transcriptional effector of thermogenesis and induced by cold and cAMP in adipocytes and is sufficient to promote increased thermogenic gene expression, energy expenditure, and cold tolerance. Expand
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