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Hexabromocyclododecanes (HBCDs) in the environment and humans: a review.
HBCD levels in biota are increasing slowly and seem to reflect the local market demand, but time trends need to be analyzed more in detail, including HBCD stereoisomers, and more data on terrestrial organisms are needed, especially for humans.
Novel brominated flame retardants: a review of their analysis, environmental fate and behaviour.
This review summarises current knowledge about production volumes, physico-chemical properties, analysis, environmental occurrence, fate and behaviour and human exposure to the "novel" brominated
Concentrations of brominated flame retardants in dust from United Kingdom cars, homes, and offices: causes of variability and implications for human exposure.
Exposure was lower than for PBDEs and hexabromocyclodododecanes, while that for DBDPE was similar in magnitude to (Sigma)tri-hexa-BDEs, but less than for BDE-209 and HBCDs.
After the PBDE Phase-Out: A Broad Suite of Flame Retardants in Repeat House Dust Samples from California
Analysis of dust collected in California homes in 2006 and 2011 for 62 FRs and organohalogens suggests that manufacturers continue to use hazardous chemicals and replace chemicals of concern with chemicals with uncharacterized toxicity.
Levels and trends of brominated flame retardants in the European environment.
The input of BDEs to the Baltic Sea by atmospheric deposition now exceeds that of PCBs by a factor of almost 40 times, and a common suite is suggested which will allow the study of all three commercial PBDE formulations.
A review of dietary and non-dietary exposure to bisphenol-A.
The total exposure to BPA is several orders of magnitude lower than the current tolerable daily intake of 50 μg/kg bw/day, and the use of urinary concentrations from biomonitoring studies seems reliable for the overall exposure assessment.
Analytical and environmental aspects of the flame retardant tetrabromobisphenol-A and its derivatives.
Analysis of the analytical and environmental aspects of tetrabromobisphenol-A, a currently intensively used brominated flame retardant (BFR), finds environmental levels of TBBP-A in abiotic and biotic matrices are low and the expected human exposure is low.
Analytical developments and preliminary assessment of human exposure to organophosphate flame retardants from indoor dust.
Exposure of non-working and working adults to OPFRs appeared to be similar, but in specific work environments, exposure to some OP FRs (e.g. TDCPP) was increased by a factor >5 and the estimated body burdens were 1000 to 100 times below reference dose (RfD) values.
Polybrominated diphenyl ethers in domestic indoor dust from Canada, New Zealand, United Kingdom and United States.
Despite the commercial formulations of PBDEs never having been manufactured in, nor imported into New Zealand, their presence in dusts from that country suggests international trade in PBDE-containing goods is an important pathway effecting their global distribution.
Dietary PBDE intake: a market-basket study in Belgium.
Fish is the major contributor to the total daily PBDE-intake (around 40%) due to the high PBDE levels in this type of food, although low contaminated, meat products account for around 30% of the total dietary intake of PBDEs.