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HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders persist in the era of potent antiretroviral therapy
The most severe HAND diagnosis (HAD) was rare, but milder forms of impairment remained common, even among those receiving CART who had minimal comorbidities.
HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders before and during the era of combination antiretroviral therapy: differences in rates, nature, and predictors
High rates of mild NCI persist at all stages of HIV infection, despite improved viral suppression and immune reconstitution with CART, and the consistent association of NCI with nadir CD4 across eras suggests that earlier treatment to prevent severe immunosuppression may also help prevent HAND.
Validation of the CNS Penetration-Effectiveness rank for quantifying antiretroviral penetration into the central nervous system.
Poorer penetration of ARV drugs into the CNS appears to allow continued HIV replication in the CNS as indicated by higher CSF HIV viral loads, which is probably critical in treating patients who have HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders.
Effect of early versus deferred antiretroviral therapy for HIV on survival.
The early initiation of antiretroviral therapy before the CD4+ count fell below two prespecified thresholds significantly improved survival, as compared with deferred therapy.
Antiretroviral-drug resistance among patients recently infected with HIV.
Testing for resistance to drugs before therapy begins is now indicated even for recently infected patients, as the proportion of new HIV infections that involve drug-resistant virus is increasing in North America.
Clinical and Epidemiologic Features of Primary HIV Infection
- T. Schacker, A. Collier, J. Hughes, T. Shea, L. Corey
- MedicineAnnals of Internal Medicine
- 15 August 1996
The events leading to the acquisition of HIV and the initial clinical and diagnostic evaluation of 46 patients with primary HIV infection are summarized.
Imaging P‐glycoprotein Transport Activity at the Human Blood‐brain Barrier with Positron Emission Tomography
The prevalence and incidence of neurocognitive impairment in the HAART era
The association of previous advanced immunosuppression with prevalent and sustained impairment suggests that there is a non-reversible component of neural injury that tracks with a history of disease progression, and suggests that restoring immunocompetence increases the likelihood of neurocognitive recovery.
CD4 nadir is a predictor of HIV neurocognitive impairment in the era of combination antiretroviral therapy
It is suggested that initiation of CART as early as possible might reduce the risk of developing HAND, the most common source of NPI among HIV-infected individuals.
Continued high prevalence and adverse clinical impact of human immunodeficiency virus-associated sensory neuropathy in the era of combination antiretroviral therapy: the CHARTER Study.
Neuropathic pain and HIV-SN remain prevalent, causing substantial disability and reduced quality of life even with successful CART, and argue for redoubled efforts to determine HIV- SN pathogenesis and the development of symptomatic and neuroregenerative therapies.