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HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders persist in the era of potent antiretroviral therapy
TLDR
The most severe HAND diagnosis (HAD) was rare, but milder forms of impairment remained common, even among those receiving CART who had minimal comorbidities. Expand
HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders before and during the era of combination antiretroviral therapy: differences in rates, nature, and predictors
TLDR
High rates of mild NCI persist at all stages of HIV infection, despite improved viral suppression and immune reconstitution with CART, and the consistent association of NCI with nadir CD4 across eras suggests that earlier treatment to prevent severe immunosuppression may also help prevent HAND. Expand
Validation of the CNS Penetration-Effectiveness rank for quantifying antiretroviral penetration into the central nervous system.
TLDR
Poorer penetration of ARV drugs into the CNS appears to allow continued HIV replication in the CNS as indicated by higher CSF HIV viral loads, which is probably critical in treating patients who have HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders. Expand
Effect of early versus deferred antiretroviral therapy for HIV on survival.
TLDR
The early initiation of antiretroviral therapy before the CD4+ count fell below two prespecified thresholds significantly improved survival, as compared with deferred therapy. Expand
Antiretroviral-drug resistance among patients recently infected with HIV.
TLDR
Testing for resistance to drugs before therapy begins is now indicated even for recently infected patients, as the proportion of new HIV infections that involve drug-resistant virus is increasing in North America. Expand
The prevalence and incidence of neurocognitive impairment in the HAART era
TLDR
The association of previous advanced immunosuppression with prevalent and sustained impairment suggests that there is a non-reversible component of neural injury that tracks with a history of disease progression, and suggests that restoring immunocompetence increases the likelihood of neurocognitive recovery. Expand
Clinical and Epidemiologic Features of Primary HIV Infection
TLDR
The events leading to the acquisition of HIV and the initial clinical and diagnostic evaluation of 46 patients with primary HIV infection are summarized. Expand
Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy Decreases Mortality and Morbidity in Patients with Advanced HIV Disease
TLDR
The effect of HAART was studied in a large multicenter trial of blood transfusion in patients with advanced HIV disease who were also anemic, an indicator of poor prognosis, and estimates of the magnitude of the effect ofHAART on mortality and morbidity are less likely to be confounded by changes in patient mix or medical practice compared with previously published studies. Expand
Imaging P‐glycoprotein Transport Activity at the Human Blood‐brain Barrier with Positron Emission Tomography
TLDR
A state‐of‐the‐art, noninvasive, quantitative imaging technique is developed to measure P‐gp activity by use of carbon 11‐labeled verapamil as the P‐ gp substrate and cyclosporine (INN, ciclosporin) as theP‐gp inhibitor. Expand
Efavirenz concentrations in CSF exceed IC50 for wild-type HIV.
TLDR
Efavirenz concentrations in the CSF are only 0.5% of plasma concentrations but exceed the wild-type IC(50) in nearly all individuals, and since CSF drug concentrations reflect those in brain interstitial fluids, efvirenz reaches therapeutic concentrations in brain tissue. Expand
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