Animal models of human placentation--a review.
- A. Carter
- 1 April 2007
Comparative aspects of trophoblast development and placentation
It is argued that a definitive epitheliochorial placenta is a secondary specialization and that it evolved twice,once in the Laurasiatheria and once in the lemurs and lorises.
Evolutionary transformations of fetal membrane characters in Eutheria with special reference to Afrotheria.
A reconstruction of the evolution of characters associated with placentation, the fetal membranes and the female reproductive tract is attempted and it is possible to identify morphological characters that could be synapomorphic for this novel taxon Afrotheria.
Human placentation from nidation to 5 weeks of gestation. Part I: What do we know about formative placental development following implantation?
Evolution of placental function in mammals: the molecular basis of gas and nutrient transfer, hormone secretion, and immune responses.
- A. Carter
- BiologyPhysiological Reviews
- 1 October 2012
Coevolution in the primate lineage of killer immunoglobulin-like receptors and human leukocyte antigens can be linked to the deep invasion of the uterus by trophoblast that is a characteristic feature of human placentation.
What can comparative studies of placental structure tell us?--A review.
Spatial and temporal patterns of expression of messenger RNA for insulin-like growth factors and their binding proteins in the placenta of man and laboratory animals.
Comparative studies will continue to be required to understand the functional role of IGFs and IGFBPs in each species, and to highlight the diversity in the expression of the IGF system among placentae of man and different laboratory animals, and even between closely related species.
The role of invasive trophoblast in implantation and placentation of primates
- A. Carter, A. Enders, R. Pijnenborg
- Biology, MedicinePhilosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B…
- 5 March 2015
The evolution of invasive placentation in primates towards the deep penetration of the endometrium and its arteries in hominoids is reviewed and trophoblast invasion that extends remodelling of the spiral arteries to segments in the inner myometrium evolved in the common ancestor of gorilla, chimp and human.
Placentation in cloned cattle: structure and microvascular architecture.