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Oxidative damage to methyl-CpG sequences inhibits the binding of the methyl-CpG binding domain (MBD) of methyl-CpG binding protein 2 (MeCP2).
Cytosine methylation in CpG dinucleotides is believed to be important in gene regulation, and is generally associated with reduced levels of transcription. Methylation-mediated gene silencingExpand
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Repair of the mutagenic DNA oxidation product, 5-formyluracil.
The oxidation of the thymine methyl group can generate 5-formyluracil (FoU). Template FoU residues are known to miscode, generating base substitution mutations. The repair of the FoU lesion isExpand
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Substrate recognition by a family of uracil-DNA glycosylases: UNG, MUG, and TDG.
In response to continuous hydrolytic and oxidative DNA damage, cells of all organisms have a complex network of repair systems that recognize, remove, and rebuild the injured sites. DamagedExpand
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5-Halogenated pyrimidine lesions within a CpG sequence context mimic 5-methylcytosine by enhancing the binding of the methyl-CpG-binding domain of methyl-CpG-binding protein 2 (MeCP2)
Perturbations in cytosine methylation signals are observed in the majority of human tumors; however, it is as yet unknown how methylation patterns become altered. Epigenetic changes can result in theExpand
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Synthesis of stable-isotope enriched 5-methylpyrimidines and their use as probes of base reactivity in DNA.
A specific and efficient method is presented for the conversion of 2'-deoxyuridine to thymidine via formation and reduction of the intermediate 5-hydroxymethyl derivative. The method has been used toExpand
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Chemical decomposition of 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine (Decitabine): kinetic analyses and identification of products by NMR, HPLC, and mass spectrometry.
The nucleoside analogue 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine (Decitabine, DAC) is one of several drugs in clinical use that inhibit DNA methyltransferases, leading to a decrease of 5-methylcytosine in newlyExpand
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Characterization of the substrate specificity of a human 5-hydroxymethyluracil glycosylase activity.
The oxidation of pyrimidine 5-methyl groups, derived from either thymine or 5-methylcytosine, can generate 5-hydroxymethyluracil (HmU) in DNA. An activity from HeLa cells that removesExpand
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Synthesis and characterization of oligonucleotides containing 5-chlorocytosine.
Recent studies have shown that reactive chlorine species, derived from myeloperoxidase-mediated inflammation responses, can modify DNA bases, generating 5-chloropyrimidines. The chlorinated adductsExpand
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Endogenous DNA lesions can inhibit the binding of the AP-1 (c-Jun) transcription factor.
The repair of DNA damage, caused by both endogenous and exogenous sources, is necessary to remove lesions that either miscode or block DNA or RNA polymerases. We propose that damage also must beExpand
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Characterization of synthetic oligonucleotides containing biologically important modified bases by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry.
Oligonucleotides containing modified bases are commonly used for biochemical and biophysical studies to assess the impact of specific types of chemical damage on DNA structure and function. InExpand
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